An-Najah National University

Hassan Arafat


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  • Friday, December 31, 1999
  • Immobilization of phenol in cement-based solidified/stabilized hazardous wastes using regenerated activated carbon: leaching studies
  • Published at:Journal of Hazardous Materials
  • In this research, we investigated the use of an inexpensive thermally regenerated activated carbon as a pre-adsorbent in the solidification/stabilization of phenol-contaminated sand. Our results show that even the addition of very low amounts of regenerated activated carbon (1%–2% w/w sand) resulted in the rapid adsorption of phenol in the Chemical solidification/stabilization (S/S) matrix, with phenol leaching reduced by as much as 600%. Adsorption studies indicated that the adsorption of phenol on the reactivated carbon was found to be partially irreversible over time in the S/S waste form, indicating possible chemical adsorption. Pore-fluid analyses of the cement paste containing phenol suggested the formation of a calcium–phenol complex, which further reduced the amount of free phenol present in the pores. Studies using several micro-structural techniques, including field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicated significant morphological changes in the cement matrix upon the addition of phenol and reactivated carbon. The hydration of cement in the presence of phenol was retarded concomitant with formation of amorphous portlandite.


    Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 70, Issue 3, 31 December 1999, Pages 117-138


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Hassan Ali Arafat
Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineering Professor with research and teaching interests in water and wastewater processes (especially desalination), environmental Protection, and quality assurance in higher education and academic performance assessment and development.
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