An-Najah Blogs :: Numan-mizyed An-Najah Blogs :: Numan-mizyed en-us Tue, 12 Nov 2019 03:33:44 IST Tue, 12 Nov 2019 03:33:44 IST Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources Availability and Agricultural Water Demand in the West Bank ArticlesAbstractGlobal climate change is predicted as a result of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere It is predicted that climate change will result in increasing temperature by 2 to 6C and a possible reduction of precipitation of up to 16 in the Mediterranean basin In this study the West Bank is taken as a case study from the Mediterranean basin to evaluate the effects of such climate change on water resources availability and agricultural water demands Due to the uncertainty in climate change impacts on temperature and precipitation a number of scenarios for these impacts were assumed within the range of predicted changes For temperature three scenarios of 2 4 and 6C increase were assumed For precipitation two scenarios of no change and 16 precipitation reduction were assumed Based on these scenarios monthly evapotranspiration and monthly precipitation excess depths were estimated at seven weather stations distributed over the different climatic and geographical areas of the West Bank GIS spatial analyses showed that the increase in temperature predicted by climate change could potentially increase agricultural water demands by up to 17 and could also result in reducing annual groundwater recharge by up to 21 of existing values However the effects of reduced precipitation resulting from climate change are more enormous as a 16 reduction in precipitation could result in reducing annual groundwater recharge in the West Bank by about 30 of existing value When this effect is combined with a 6C increase in temperature the reduction in groundwater recharge could reach 50 Water Resources Management Springer Netherlands DOI: 101007s11269-008-9367-0 Published online: 31October2008Non-conventional options for water supply augmentation in the Middle East: a case study ArticlesMiddle Eastern countries ME particularly Israel Jordan and Palestine are expected to face severe water shortages in the near future As most conventional water resources are already developed or over exploited there is a need to develop non-conventional options to bridge water shortages These options include brackish and sea water desalination and fresh water imports from outside the region either by sea or land Technically non-conventional options are possible and feasible however depending on many factors these options are available at a high capital investment with different costs and are associated with some environmental and ecological impacts and political considerations Water and other conflicts in the region along with funding problems are the main obstacles to the implementation of such options in the ME Integrating conventional and non-conventional water development options are found to be a more viable combination on the long term Cooperation between ME countries is found to be a key factor to overcoming water shortage using non-conventional options Therefore it is concluded that non-conventional water options should be encouraged in the region and should be utilized to overcome not only water shortages but also to resolve conflicts and restore economic growth peace and stability among regional parties and peopleImpacts of Irrigation with Water Containing Heavy Metals on Soil and Groundwater – A Simulation Study ArticlesThis research work intended to study the impacts of irrigation water containing various levels of copper lead and zinc on adsorption capacity of soil packed in 4 plastic columns and obtained from two locations around the city of Nablus: Salem A and Deir Sharaf B Results of simulation experiments showed an increase in the copper lead and zinc concentrations in soil and in leachate with increasing the amount of metal in irrigation water Copper lead and zinc concentrations increased also with soil depth and duration of application The results also indicate that the self purification of both soils was highly affected by physical factors ie the intermittent application of irrigation water to the soils in the columns caused soil wetting and drying cycles whichresulted in the formation of cracks in shrinked soils specially in the top half of the columns Crack formation is common in such clay soils due to the climatic conditions Mediterranean type: dry summers and wet winters and type of clay minerals in the soil Thus short circuiting of water through cracks results in moving contaminants fast and deep in the soil profile Water Air Soil Pollution Volume 146 Numbers 1-4 June 2003 http:wwwspringerlinkcomcontenth01741509p162050Numerical Analysis to Solve the Hydraulics of Trickle Irrigation Units ArticlesA model to solve the hydraulics of trickleirrigation units is developed in thisstudy This model is based on utilizingNewton Raphson technique The modelconverts laterals into equivalent outletsthrough utilizing a simple power relationbetween inlet lateral discharge andhydraulic head This relation is obtainedthrough least squares analysis betweeninlet lateral discharge and hydraulic head This study showed that this relation withonly two coefficients is sufficient todescribe the relation between inlet lateraldischarge and hydraulic head Based onthis relation the model converts manifoldlines into equivalent laterals and solvestheir hydraulics by Newton Raphsontechnique After that solution the modelevaluates trickle irrigation units byestimating statistical uniformity andChristiansen uniformity coefficients andchecks the solution obtained throughforward step method for each lateral Several numerical examples for utilizingthe model are presented in this paper Irrigation and Drainage Systems Volume 16 Number 1 February 2002 Optimal Nitrogen Fertilization for Potatoes in the West Bank-Palestine ArticlesA study was conducted in Tubas district in a field located in Wadi Al-Fara The area is under irrigation and rich with ground water Fara basin Potatoe crop was selected as it is one of the most important irrigated crops in the area Spunta cultivar was used Two experiments were conducted The first was conducted to determine the most suitable type of nitrogen source and the second experiment was conducted to determine the optimal nitrogen fertilization for potatoes It was found that the type and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer added to potatoes plants affected both crop quantity and quality The vegetative dry weight was increased when nitrogen fertilizers were used In addition the use of both urea and ammonium sulfate increases potato yield Mixing the organic acid fertilizer with ammonium sulfate or urea also increased the production insignificantly It was found that increasing the amount of nitrogen increases the number of tubers size hardness and the density of the tuber A quadratic significant relation was found between the yield and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer A maximum yield of potato under the experimental conditions was obtained with 35kgdunum nitrogen rate as ammonium sulfate Yield at this rate was 4016kgdunum Nitrate residue in the root zone at the end of the season has increased significantly when more than 20kg nitrogendunum was added When organic acid fertilizer was mixed with ammonium sulfate the nitrate was increased in the soil profile and the salt leaching was also minimized An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 16 Issue 2 2002 Pages: 141-154Land use management in the context of joint management of shared aquifers ArticlesMANAGEMENT OF SHARED GROUNDWATER RESOURCES: ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CASE WITH INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Series: NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND POLICY Pages: 445-452 Published: 2000The Response of Three Varieties of Wheat to Nitrogen Fertilization ArticlesThe effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization 0 2 4 8 and 16 kg N dunum on the production of three wheat varieties 780 Lakeesh and Anbar were studied The experiment was conducted for two successive seasons 1994 and 1995 In the second season 1995 a higher nitrogen fertilization rate 16 kg N dunum and a third variety Anbar were added The different levels of nitrogen fertilization were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design for each variety The results showed positive response of the three varieties to the nitrogen fertilization Nitrogen fertilization increased significantly the total yield and the straw weight in variety 780 and the grain weight for lakeesh variety in the first season In the second season there was a significant quadratic relation between the nitrogen fertilization and the total grain and straw weight in variety 780 and the total and grain weight for lackeesh however for Anbar variety a significant quadratic relation was only shown between the nitrogen application and straw weight There was no significant effect of nitrogen fertilization on grain size or the level of nitrogen and protein in the grains Using the yield-fertilizer application relations obtained in the experiment it was found that the optimal nitrogen fertilization which gave the highest optimal return were 57 126 and 95 kg dunum for the three varieties lakeesh 780 and Anbar subsequently The optimal amount of fertilization wasnt highly influenced with 20 changes in pricesComparative Analysis of Techniques for Solving the Hydraulics of Pressurized Irrigation Pipe Networks ArticlesThis study presents a comparative analysis for three techniques in analyzing the hydraulics of pressurized irrigation systems: Linear Theory Newton Raphson and Iterative Distal Outlet It was found that the iterative distal outlet method uses less computer time and memory than Newton Raphson and Linear theory methods in analyzing the hydraulics of pressurized irrigation systems The study shows that using an approximate initial solution for such systems which can be obtained using Wu-Gitlin approach will significantly improve the convergence rate of this iterative method as well as the other methodsOperation of Large Multireservoir Systems Using Optimal-Control Theory ArticlesThe utility of optimal-control theory for the deterministic operation of very large multireservoir systems is demonstrated for a real situation the complex multireservoir Mahaweli system in Sri Lanka This system includes 19 nodes or reservoirs and 35 release links The model developed for the Mahaweli is designed to minimize a hydroelectric energy shortage objective and satisfy prespecified irrigation demand constraints Two alternative approaches are explored for optimal operation of the Mahaweli system The first involves monthly application of the optimal-control algorithm to find an optimal policy for the next year based on current storage and forecasted or historical inflows and demands The second alternative is an implicit stochastic approach in which linear operating rules are derived using deterministic optimal control and historical data Both of the alternatives give reasonable and comparable results The implicit stochastic optimization alternative has a great advantage regarding computer time and storage requirements This makes it usable on a small personal computer providing the system operator with decisions in a few seconds even with very large systemsImportance of Demand Estimation in Irrigation-System Management ArticlesSystems engineering research is conducted to analyze improvements in performance of a water-storage and -distribution system in response to improved monitoring of irrigation demands The Mahaweli system in Sri Lanka a multireservoir system with both hydropower and irrigation objectives has been selected as a case study The operation of the Mahaweli system is simulated using a regression model obtained through implicit stochastic optimization Spatially independent cross-correlated and systematic errors in irrigation demands are considered These three types of errors have similar patterns in their effects on system operation When the Mahaweli system is operated optimally both energy shortages and irrigation shortages increased with increasing standard deviations of error This indicates that improving the measurements of irrigation demand would be beneficial to both farmers and hydropower recipientsEmitter discharge evaluation of subsurface trickle irrigation systems ArticlesTransactions of the ASAE USA v 324 p 1223-1228