An-Najah Blogs :: Hassan Arafat An-Najah Blogs :: Hassan Arafat en-us Wed, 13 Nov 2019 03:31:35 IST Wed, 13 Nov 2019 03:31:35 IST Sustainable Waste Management in the Mediterranean Region: Impacts of Socio-economical and Political Factors Articles Solid waste management is a key task of city councils and municipalities throughout the world in order to keep cities tidy and clean Focus is often on the technologies such as collection transportation recycling storage and disposal of wastes However solid waste management must be seen in a much wider perspective that includes health to people and environment conscious use of resources materials and energy and goods as well as welfare and economic livelihood to business and people Waste prevention energy saving reuse recycling and material and energy recovery thereby become concrete challenges to administrations businesses and individuals in the urban areas Up-to-date urban solid waste management demands a well designed mix of for example policy administration corporate social responsibility business economy and motivation and education of the individual citizen Successful implementation of such management of solid waste then becomes strongly dependent on the local and regional socio-economic and political attributes of the area where the waste is generated in addition to the traditional collection and treatment technology aspects A good understanding of the mechanisms by which these socio-economic and political factors impact the waste management process is pivotal to developing effective and more sustainable waste management strategies For example it is imperative that waste management policies express the sustainability ambition that decision-making and implementation become participatory processes and include both businesses and citizens that administrations become flexible and effective with short intervals between application and permission and that resources be allocated or reallocated to implement new waste management strategies and systems Climate change and Greenhouse Gas emission reduction will become new and concrete challenges in the needed change of solid waste management strategies The dynamics by which socio-economical and political factors influence or change solid waste management are not sufficiently understood or documented in literature or by practice Therefore this workshop will provide a platform for researchers from universities and private and public institutions and businesses from various Mediterranean countries to exchange their knowledge in this field with the intent that such exchange of knowledge and experience will lead to more fruitful and sustainable waste management strategies in their countries Chemical and microbiological quality of desalinated water, groundwater and rain-fed cisterns in the Gaza strip, Palestine ArticlesThe aim of this study was to assess the physiochemical and microbiological quality of the domestic water through one-year long surveillance in Gaza Strip Palestine Water samples were taken from rain-fed cisterns groundwater from the water network and desalinated water For certain chemical parameters such as nitrate a high percentage of water samples from all sources exceeded the limits of the Palestinian Standard Institution and the World Health Organization WHO Total dissolved solid TDS readings were non-compliant for most samples from groundwater and water from rain-fed cisterns but the TDS quality was far better in desalinated water As far as microbiological quality is concerned high percentages of non-compliance were observed for total Coliform and fecal Coliform in most water samples which was also reflected by the high incidence of water-borne diseases in Gaza Strip The study reveals a clear superiority of quality for desalinated water but also the need to adopt better practices maintenance and pre- and post-treatment in the desalination plants Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus – Palestinian territory ArticlesLitter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers Nablus district West Bank Palestinian Territory which has an established network of urban and rural roads suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics gender income marital status and religious convictions of district residents on their attitudes practices and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations not only with littering behavior and practices but also with potential litter prevention strategies In particular the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observeUltrafiltration of polysaccharide–protein mixtures: Elucidation of fouling mechanisms and fouling control by membrane surface modification ArticlesThis work describes the fouling behavior of polysaccharideprotein mixture solutions by investigation of adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling Alginate dextran myoglobin and bovine serum albumin were used as model foulants Three commercial polyether sulfone PES ultrafiltration UF membranes with nominal cut-off of 10 30 and 100 kgmol and a PES-based thin layer hydrogel composite TLHC membrane synthesized by photo-initiated graft copolymerization of polyethylene glycol methacrylate PEGMA and having a cut-off of 10 kgmol were used The effects of pH foulant concentration ionic content and proportion of protein to polysaccharide in the solution on fouling were investigated The results showed that significant water flux reductions and changes in membrane surface property were observed after static adsorption for PES membranes for all feed solution conditions This water flux reduction decreased with increasing the pH of the solution Addition of monovalent ions could either increase or decrease the water flux reduction Synergistic effects between polysaccharide and protein with respect to forming a mixed fouling layer with stronger reduction of flux than for the individual solutes under the same conditions have also been verified for PES UF membranes UF experiments using a stirred dead-end UF suggested that both reversible and irreversible fouling have contributed to the overall fouling The antifouling efficiency of the TLHC membrane with respect to both adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling has been demonstrated for the strong foulant alginate as well as for polysaccharideprotein mixtures Separation and Purification Technology Volume 63 Issue 3 3 November 2008 Pages 558-565 http:dxdoiorg101016jseppur200806017Preparation of thin-film-composite polyamide membranes for desalination using novel hydrophilic surface modifying macromolecules ArticlesA new concept for the preparation of thin-film-composite TFC reverse osmosis RO membrane by interfacial polymerization on porous polysulfone PS support using novel additives is reported Hydrophilic surface modifying macromolecules LSMM were synthesized both ex situ by conventional method cLSMM and in situ within the organic solvent of the TFC system iLSMM The effects of these LSMMs on the fouling of the TFC RO membranes used in the desalination processes were studied FTIR results indicated that both cLSMM and iLSMM were present in the active layer of the TFC membranes SEM micrographs depicted that heterogeneity of the surface increases for TFC membranes compared to the control PS membrane and that higher concentrations of LSMM provided smoother surface AFM characteristic data presented that the surface roughness of the skin surface increases for TFC membranes compared to the control The RO performance results showed that the addition of the cLSMM significantly decreased the salt rejection of the membrane and slightly reduced the flux while in the case of the iLSMM salt rejection was improved but the flux declined at different rates for different iLSMM concentrations The membrane prepared by the iLSMM exhibited less flux decay over an extended operational period Journal of Membrane Science Volume 325 Issue 1 15 November 2008 Pages 166-175 http:dxdoiorg101016jmemsci200807037Simple physical treatment for the reuse of wastewater from textile industry in the Middle East ArticlesIn this work different treatment methods for wastewater from textile washing operations in the Palestinian territories were studied The goal of the treatment process was to enable the textile industry to reuse the wastewater in textile washing through simple efficient and cost-effective methodologies Actual textile wastewater samples from local textile factories were used and were found to be highly polluted The study focused on three main processes; sedimentation coagulation and adsorption While sedimentation was found to reduce the total suspended solids TSS of the wastewater coagulation had the additional advantages of lowering the chemical oxygen demand COD and achieving higher filtration rates Four coagulants were tested ferric chloride ferrous sulfate plus lime aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate plus lime While ferric chloride failed to perform effectively as a coagulant the other three coagulants were fairly effective Finally to further lower the COD of post-coagulation treated water adsorption using activated carbon was studied It was found that carbon was effective in reducing the COD of the wastewater using reasonable quantities where up to 98 COD reduction was achieved using 6 g carbonLKey words: textile wastewater treatment coagulation sedimentation adsorptionInfluence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the Middle East: effects of education level, age, and type of residence ArticlesStreet littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities The purpose of this paper which focuses on Nablus district Palestinian Territory is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering This was achieved using an interview survey approach The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education age and type of residence on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied As a result possible remedial actions have been suggested The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programme for Middle Eastern countries Waste Management Research Vol 25 No 4 363-370 2007 http:wmrsagepubcomcgicontentabstract254363Trends and problems of solid waste management in developing countries: A case study in seven Palestinian districts ArticlesThere is a great interest in solving problems related to municipal solid waste MSW management in the Palestinian territory However few studies have been done to assess the extent of these problems and suggest the best alternative solutions This study aims at assessing MSW conditions in the seven major districts in northern West Bank Palestinian territory The study focuses on comparing several MSW management elements such as collection budget and disposal in municipalities village councils and refugee camps in the studied districts and the problems faced by these institutions in handling the waste It also provides information on MSW collection service availability and waste disposal practices in the districts studied It was found that although MSW collection service was available for 98 of the residents in the areas surveyed no proper treatment or landfill procedure was followed for the collected waste in most of these areas Instead waste burning in open dumpsites was the most common practice Moreover due to inefficient collection of waste disposal fees from the residents municipalities were forced to sometimes cut the collection service and reduce its labor force especially in villages The budget for MSW management was between 2 and 8 of the total budget of the municipalities studied indicating a low priority for this issue Waste Management Volume 27 Issue 12 2007 Pages 1910-1919 http:dxdoiorg101016jwasman200611006Effects of prevailing conditions during second Palestinian uprising on solid waste management system in Nablus city in Palestine ArticlesSince the start of the second Palestinian uprising Al-Aqsa Intifada and due to the Israeli activities curfews closures and military checkpoints imposed since 2000 the quality of social services rendered by Nablus city has been gradually deteriorating Solid waste management in Nablus city was badly affected by these conditions and this situation is negatively affecting health and damaging the environment Most of these cases were due to reasons beyond the capability of the municipality with its limited resources This study revealed that some of the important municipal solid waste MSW equipment had been damaged during the uprising The workforce in the MSW system was reduced and certain MSW-related development projects and activities have been frozen due to the current conditions The citys medical waste incinerator had been phased out and the number of special medical containers had been reduced from 16 to 10 Some MSW compressing trucks had been out of use with no substitute Another important figure is the number of waste collection workers which decreased from 420 to 301 although the city is growing in premises as well as population The created unsanitary solid waste transfer station is now a pollution source on its own causing an ugly scene at the eastern entrance of Nablus city There should be a comprehensive and urgent solution for this problem and the needed resources should be invested International Journal of Environmental Health Research Volume 16 Number 4 August 2006 pp 281-2877On the Adsorption of Aromatics on Oxygenated Activated Carbon in Nonaqueous Adsorption Media ArticlesIn a previous study H-bonding was postulated as a mechanism of adsorption for aromatics on oxygen-containing activated carbon To verify this the adsorption of phenol aniline benzene and nitrobenzene was studied as a function of surface oxygen groups It was determined that there is a linear correlation between total surface acidity and adsorption capacity for H-bonding adsorbates in cyclohexane Flow microcalorimetry FMC and ultrasonic desorption tests also indicate stronger and less reversible adsorption bonds for H-bonding adsorbates Reversibility of adsorption decreased with increasing surface oxygen concentration indicating a strong relationship between the oxygen groups and adsorption mechanism Separation Science and Technology Volume 39 Issue 1 January 2005 pages 43 - 62Lab-Scale Demonstration of the UREX+ Process ArticlesThe Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFCI funded by the US Department of Energys Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology is developing advanced technologies to safely and economically reduce the volume and heat generation of material requiring geologic disposition thereby extending the capacity of the Yucca Mountain repository and delaying or avoiding the need for a second repository An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides followed by superior waste-disposal forms andor transmutation of long-lived isotopes To that end the AFCI is developing advanced fuel reprocessing systems that separate key radionuclides from spent fuel One of these systems is the UREX process The UREX process is a series of five solvent-extraction flowsheets that perform the following operations: 1 recovery of Tc and U UREX 2 recovery of Cs and Sr CDC-PEG 3 recovery of Pu and Np NPEX 4 recovery of Am Cm and rare-earth fission products TRUEX and finally 5 separation of Am and Cm from the rare earths Cyanex 301 This paper discusses the results of the demonstration lessons learned during the demonstration and future development needs and plansA Study of the Influence of Hydrophobicity of Activated Carbon on the Adsorption Equilibrium of Aromatics in Non-Aqueous Media ArticlesThe effect of hydrophobicity on the adsorption of aromatics on metal-free activated carbons was studied Adsorption isotherms for phenol aniline benzene and xylene were generated in cyclohexane and heptane media using seven carbons with different surface heterogeneity The hydrophobicity of these carbons was probed using flow microcalorimetry FMC Surface polarity and solvent and adsorbate hydrophobicity were found to influence the adsorption capacity For adsorbates that do not form hydrogen bonds with oxygen on the carbon surface higher surface acidity lowers adsorption capacity due to increased polarity In contrast for adsorbates that can form hydrogen bonds with surface oxygen the capacity is enhanced at higher surface acidities A higher solvent hydrophobicity was found to decrease capacity for all the aromatic adsorbates studied except at high surface polarity where the effect of the solvent was found to be minimal Adsorption Volume 9 Number 4 December 2003 pp 311-3199 Proof-of-Concept Flowsheet Tests for Cesium Removal From Tank Waste by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction ArticlesA caustic-side solvent extraction CSSX process to remove cesium from Savannah River Site SRS high-level waste has been developed through a joint program with Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL the Savannah River Technical Center SRTC and Argonne National Laboratory ANL The CSSX solvent consists of four components: 1 an extractant a calixarene crown calix[4]arene-bistert-octylbenzo-crown-6 designated BOBCalixC6 2 a modifier an alkyl aryl polyether 1-2233-tetrafluoropropoxy-3-4-sec-butylphenoxy-2- propanol also called Cs-7SB 3 a suppressant an alkyl amine trioctylamine TOA and 4 a diluent Isopar L The solvent composition is 001 M BOBCalixC6 050 M Cs-7SB and 0001 M TOA in Isopar L In this program we have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet that can be used to process SRS tank waste To this end a series of flowsheet tests were completed using simulated waste in a 2-cm centrifugal contactor at ANL Three short-term 3-4 hours tests were completed to demonstrate various aspects of the flowsheet These tests were followed by a 71-h test where the solvent was recycled 42 times In each case we met or exceeded the key process goals: 1 cesium removal from the waste with a decontamination factor greater than 40000 2 concentration of cesium in the aqueous strip effluent by a factor of 15 using dilute nitric acid and 3 stripping the solvent sufficiently to allow it to be recycled many times The results from the 71-h test are discussedExperimental verification of caustic-side solvent extraction for removal of cesium from tank waste. ArticlesThe objectives of this report are: to demonstrate complete CSSX process flowsheet proof of concept--decontamination factor{ge} 40000 and concentration factor{approx}15; Scientific and technical issues evaluated--stage efficiency temperature control hydraulic performance long time multi-day operation short-term shutdown effect of solids and recovery from Cs moving through strip section 12th Symposium on Separation Science and Technology for Energy Applications Gatlinburg TN US 10152001--10182001 ; PBD: 21 Sep 2001 Ultrafiltration of Labaneh whey: Effect of operating parameters ArticlesIn this work the effect of operating parameters on the ultrafiltration of labaneh whey in hollow-fiber membranes was investigated Polysulfonic hollow-fiber membranes with nominal molecular weight cut-off NMWCO of 5 30 and 100 kDalton were used in the ultrafiltration process Different operating conditions of temperature pH protein and total solid concentration transmembrane pressure flow rates and pre-treatment were studied It was found that flux increased with increasing trans-membrane pressure temperature and flow rate This was attributed to the drop in the resistance on the membrane surface Flux was found to decrease when the pH was increased Higher pH was found to be responsible for tricalcium phosphate colloid formation which led to a higher fouling rate in the membrane Larger pore size was found to enhance the flux by decreasing the membrane intrinsic resistance The efficiency of the ultrafiltration UF process in concentrating protein in labaneh whey was also studied The UF process was found efficient in concentrating protein in labaneh whey when a 30 kDa membrane was used It was found however that the 100 kDa membrane was inefficient for concentrating protein in labaneh whey In this case protein was found to pass through the membranes surface Arabian J for Sci Eng 262C 5567 2001 Decomposition of hazardous organic materials in the solidification/stabilization process using catalytic-activated carbon ArticlesThe application of a catalytic-activated carbon to the solidificationstabilization SS process for immobilization of phenol and 2-chlorophenol and catalytic decomposition was investigated The effect of the catalytic-activated carbon in amounts of 025-1 by dry sand wt on the leaching of phenol and 2-chlorophenol was studied H2O2 was added as a source of oxygen in the amounts of 1 or 5 with respect to liquid solution weight Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure TCLP leaching tests showed that adding the catalytic-activated carbon to the SS matrix significantly reduced the leachability of both phenol and 2-chlorophenol Only trace amounts of phenol were found in the leaching solution while the concentration of 2-chlorophenol was below the detection limit of the gas chromatography GC Without addition of the catalytic-activated carbon 87 of the phenol and 92 of the 2-chlorophenol leached Additional tests on TCLP leachate solutions using GC-mass spectrometry indicated the existence of simple less hazardous hydrocarbons including alcohol Catalytic-activated carbons treated with phenol in the presence of H2O2 were also analyzed using time of flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy TOF-SIMS Results indicate that the phenol aromatic ring was broken by the catalytic reaction Waste management New York NY 214:343-56 2001 Proof-of-Concept Flowsheet Tests for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium from Tank Waste ArticlesA caustic-side solvent extraction CSSX process to remove cesium from Savannah River Site SRS high-level waste was tested in a minicontactor 2-cm centrifugal contactor In the first phase of this effort the minicontactor stage efficiency was improved from 60 to greater than 80 to meet the SRS process requirements using a 32-stage CSSX flowsheet Then the CSSX flowsheet was demonstrated in a 32-stage unit first without solvent recycle then with it In both cases the key process goals were achieved: 1 the cesium was removed from the waste with decontamination factors greater than 40000 and 2 the recovered cesium was concentrated by a factor of 15 in dilute nitric acid Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL analysis of the recycled solvent showed no evidence of impurity buildupEffect of chemical surface heterogeneity on the adsorption mechanism of dissolved aromatics on activated carbon ArticlesThe effects of oxygen-containing groups particularly carboxylic and carbonyl groups on the adsorption of dissolved aromatics on ash-free activated carbon have been studied Adsorption isotherms for phenol aniline nitrobenzene and benzoic acid were generated in both aqueous and cyclohexane media using carbons with different amounts of surface oxygen groups It was found that water adsorption dispersiverepulsive interactions and hydrogen-bonding were the main mechanisms by which surface oxygen groups influence the adsorption capacity while donoracceptor interactions were found not to be significant The adsorption mechanism was also found to be influenced by the properties of the functional group on the aromatic adsorbate especially its ability to hydrogen-bond and through its activatingdeactivating influence on the aromatic ring Carbon Volume 38 Issue 13 2000 Pages 1807-1819 Immobilization of phenol in cement-based solidified/stabilized hazardous wastes using regenerated activated carbon: role of carbon ArticlesThe use of regenerated activated carbon as an immobilizing additive for phenol in solidificationstabilization SS processes was investigated The adsorption capacity of regenerated carbon was compared to that of the virgin form and was found to be very close The effects of pH and CaOH2 concentration within the SS monolith on the adsorption process were also examined Kinetic tests were performed to evaluate the adsorption of phenol on different forms of F400 carbon including the regenerated form Kinetic tests were performed in aqueous solutions as well as in liquidsand mixtures In both cases it was found that phenol adsorption on F400 carbon was fairly fast More than 60 of the equilibrium adsorption amount could be achieved within the first hour for aqueous solutions For sand-solution kinetics it was found that 1 carbon based on dry sand weight was capable of achieving more than 95 removal of the initial amount of phenol present in solution 1000 and 5000 ppm Fourier transform infrared FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray mapping tests indicated a homogenous mixing of the carbon into the cement matrix The carbon was also found to enhance the hydration of cement which was retarded by the existence of phenol Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 70 Issue 3 31 December 1999 Pages 139-156 Immobilization of phenol in cement-based solidified/stabilized hazardous wastes using regenerated activated carbon: leaching studies ArticlesIn this research we investigated the use of an inexpensive thermally regenerated activated carbon as a pre-adsorbent in the solidificationstabilization of phenol-contaminated sand Our results show that even the addition of very low amounts of regenerated activated carbon 12 ww sand resulted in the rapid adsorption of phenol in the Chemical solidificationstabilization SS matrix with phenol leaching reduced by as much as 600 Adsorption studies indicated that the adsorption of phenol on the reactivated carbon was found to be partially irreversible over time in the SS waste form indicating possible chemical adsorption Pore-fluid analyses of the cement paste containing phenol suggested the formation of a calciumphenol complex which further reduced the amount of free phenol present in the pores Studies using several micro-structural techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy X-ray diffraction fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated significant morphological changes in the cement matrix upon the addition of phenol and reactivated carbon The hydration of cement in the presence of phenol was retarded concomitant with formation of amorphous portlandite Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 70 Issue 3 31 December 1999 Pages 117-138 Leaching Behavior of Selected Aromatics in Cement-Based Solidification/Stabilization under Different Leaching Tests ArticlesStabilizationsolidification SS is a common technique used for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated wastes prior to land disposal Unfortunately most predominately inorganic hazardous wastes also contain some hazardous or toxic organics These organics may not be adequately immobilized by the SS processes Adsorbents such as activated carbon or organoclays can be used in conjunction with the SS reagents but they are expensive and often make the process noncost effective This research investigated the use of inexpensive reactivated carbon for organics immobilization within the SS waste matrix Three commonly found organic contaminantsphenol aniline and naphthalenewere used in this research study The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure TCLP and the American Nuclear Society Test ANS 161 were performed to investigate the leaching behavior of these organics Effective diffusion coefficients were determined for the release of organics in the presence of the sorbent and compared with those when no sorbent was used A relatively new analytical technique Flow Microcalorimetry FMC was used to study the effects of different types of leachants on the desorption characteristics of phenol and aniline from the reactivated carbon surface Even very small amounts 12 by weight of this inexpensive reactivated carbon were found to be highly effective in preventing the organics from leaching from the SS waste form VIKRAM M HEBATPURIA HASSAN A ARAFAT PAUL L BISHOP NEVILLE G PINTO Environmental Engineering Science November 1 1999 166: 451-463 doi:101089ees199916451Effect of Salt on the Mechanism of Adsorption of Aromatics on Activated Carbon ArticlesThe effect of KCl on the adsorption of phenol toluene and benzene on activated carbon with different degrees of surface oxygenation was investigated Different trends of salt effect were observed for each compound The observed KCl effects were interpreted on the basis of electrical charge neutralization on the carbon surface and the adsorbate molecules water adsorption and the salt out effect In particular water adsorption was found to be crucial in reducing the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon The influence of water adsorption was more pronounced on carbon surfaces with higher amounts of oxygen-containing groups This was additionally confirmed by measurements using flow microcalorimetry Langmuir 1999 15 18 pp 59976003 DOI: 101021la9813331 The Role of Economic Incentive in Environmental Protection under Weak Enforcement of Environmental Law - The Experience of An-Najah University-Palestine Articles In today\s world، there are several incentives for industry to commit itself to serious environmental protection practices These include strict environmental laws، better public image، genuine environmental consciousness، and last but not least، the desire for revenue by recycling and re-using waste material In the Palestinian territories، on the other hand، a special situation exists in which environment protection laws are un-enforced due to rough political conditions Moreover، the environment comes low on the ordinary Palestinian citizen\s priority list compared to all other daily hardships To tackle this problem، our approach was \pollution prevention pays\ It was found that simple and effective recycle techniques can bring about significant savings to the Palestinian industry which makes them very interested in applying such recycle techniques The outcomes of two studies for textile and dairy industries are discussed in this work