An-Najah Blogs :: http://blogs.najah.edu/author/emp_2364 An-Najah Blogs :: en-us Fri, 22 Nov 2019 17:09:14 IST Fri, 22 Nov 2019 17:09:14 IST webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu OUTBREAK OF LARYNGOTRACHEITIS (LT) IN VACCINATED COMMERCIAL LAYER FLOCKS IN PALESTINEhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/OUTBREAK-OF-LARYNGOTRACHEITIS-LT-IN-VACCINATED-COMMERCIAL-LAYER-FLOCKS-IN-PALESTINEPublished Articles This study was conducted during an outbreak of infections laiyngotracheitis ILT in three flocks hyline breed of commercial layers with a total number of 20000 housed in cage systems in Bala East of Tulkarem North Palestine these flocks were previously vaccinated once at 15 weeks age with attenuated vaccine against ILT disease via cloacae The clinical findings of the disease were : Respirator distress including gasping coughing gargling marked dyspnea and expectorating of vigorously blood stained mucous and some layers showed existence of dried blood around the nostrils and lower beaks unilateral or bilateral closed eyes lacrimation and the egg production decreased 30 The morbidity rate was high and the mortality rate reached 12 The necropsy findings of dead birds showed mucoid tracheitis laryngitis sever hemorrhages in the trachea and the lumens were filled with mucus mixed with blood obstructing the trachea or larynx exudates caseous material and existence of blood casts along the entire length of the larynx and trachea The disease was diagnosed by isolation of the ILT virus from the dead and sick birds tracheal suspension by culturing onto the chorioallantoic membrane CAM of 10-12 day- old embryonated chicken eggs and identified by neutralization test using reference anti-ILT serum and quantitative detection of antibodies level in layers sera using ELT-LT EL1SA KIT - Jordan -Bioindustris Center JOVAC Histopathological study revealed characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in both experimentally infected cocks and tracheal section of sick layers Outbreak of Laryngotracheitis (LT) in vaccinated Commercial Layer Flocks in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/Outbreak-of-Laryngotracheitis-LT--in--vaccinated-Commercial-Layer-Flocks-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesABSTRACT This study was conducted during an outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis ILT in three flocks hyline breed of commercial layers with a total number of 20000 housed in cage systems in Bala East of Tulkarem North Palestine these flocks were previously vaccinated once at 15 weeks age with attenuated vaccine against ILT disease via cloacae The clinical findings of the disease were : Respiratory distress including gasping coughing gargling marked dyspnea and expectorating of vigorously blood stained mucous and some layers showed existence of dried blood around the nostrils and lower beaks unilateral or bilateral closed eyes lacrimation and the egg production decreased 30 The morbidity rate was high and the mortality rate reached 12 The necropsy findings of dead birds showed mucoid tracheitis laryngitis sever hemorrhages in the trachea and the lumens were filled with mucus mixed with blood obstructing the trachea or larynx exudates caseous material and existence of blood casts along the entire length of the larynx and trachea The disease was diagnosed by isolation of the ILT virus from the dead and sick birds tracheal suspension by culturing onto the chorioallantoic membrane CAM of 10-12 day- old embryonated chicken eggs and identified by neutralization test using reference anti-ILT serum and quantitative detection of antibodies level in layers sera using ELT-LT ELISA KIT Jordan Bioindustris Center JOVAC Histopathological study revealed characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in both experimentally infected cocks and tracheal section of sick layers Keywords : Iinfectious Laryngotracheitis ILT Chorioallantoic membrane CAM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA Histopathology INVESTIGATION of an OUTBREAK of SCRAPIE in http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/INVESTIGATION-of-an-OUTBREAK-of-SCRAPIE-in-Published Articles INVESTIGATION of an OUTBREAK of SCRAPIE in PALESTINE Salameh Barhoom Clinical studies Faculty of Veterinary Medicine An-Najah National University Nablus Palestie PO Box 7 e-mail address: bsalameh@najahedu استكشاف مرض الحكة بفلسطين الملخص: هذا التقرير يصف تفشي مرض الحكة في الأغنام البالغة سلالة الفريزين الشرقي East-Friesian في فلسطين حيث كان مصحوباً بنسبة إصابة عالية215 اشتملت العلامات السريرية على تصرفات غير طبيعية، تَرَنُح،رجفة، عدم اتزان في الحركة، حكة، تساقط الصوف، تلمض،رقاد وفرط الحس لأي ضوضاء حركة أو ملامسة تم تأكيد التشخيص السريري بالتغيرات المجهرية الحاصلة على نسيج الحيوانات المصابة والكشف المناعي لتجمعات البْرَّيونات البروتينية في الجهاز العصبي المركزي باختبار Immunohistochemistry بالاستعانة بأجسام مضادة أحادية النسخة RIDA Mab L42 Abstract:- This study documents an outbreak of scrapie in adult sheep East Friesian Breed in Palestine with high morbidity rate 215 The clinical findings of the disease were abnormal behavior ataxia tremor incoordination of locomotion pruritus loss of wool nibbling recumbency and hyperaesthesia to noise movement or touch The clinical diagnosis is supported by histopathological lesions and immuno-detection of prion proteins in central nervous system by immunohistochemistry using a reference specific staining monoclonal antibody RIDA Mab L42 Introduction Scrapie is a fatal degenerative disease of sheep and goats affecting the central nervous system of an incubation period 2-5 years The onset of clinical disease is insidious affected sheep show subtle changes excitable tremor of head and neck which may be elicited by sudden noise or movement shortly thereafter animal develop intense pruritus with wool loss and skin rubbed raw After 1-3 months of progressive deterioration which characterized by emaciation weakness ataxia staring eyes recumbence death occur 1 A disease affecting man and some animals known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathy TSE and is the prototype of the prion disease the heterogenons group of PrP-sc associated disorders notably bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE related humans disorders variant creutzfeldot-jakob disease of Captive and free ranging mule deer white tailed deer and Elk2 Animal prion diseases all seem to be laterally transmitted by contact with infected animals or by consumption of infected feed2 The disease is caused by a novel transmissible agent largely composed of prion protein PrP Prscan abnormal folded isoform of the normal cellular PrP PrPc The PrP is very resistant to many environmental insults chemicals and physical condition that would destroy any virus or microorganism and it does not evoke any detectable immune response or inflammatory reaction in sheep and goats 34 The diagnosis of the disease currently based on a clinical history histopathological changes in the brain and demonstration the presence of PrP containing Plaque by immunohistochemistry 5 This study deals for the first time with an outbreak of scrapie in sheep East Fresian Breed recently encountered in Palestine where clinical pathological and immunohisto_chemistry studies were conducted Material and Methods An outbreak of scrapie occurring in a private Farm with 95 adult sheep age about 2-5 years East Fresian Breed was investigated the disease appeared in Azzon area East of Qalqelia Governorate North Palestine Complete clinical examination was performed on the affected animals in April 2005 and Five recumbent animals were euthanized and subjected to thorough post-mortem examinationSpecimens from the pons medulla Midbrain thalamus cerebellum anterior spinal cord hippocampus and cerebrum were collected and fixed in 10 neutral buffered formalin for routine scrapie histopathology Hematoxylin Eosine stain 6 Immunohistochemistry assay: slides with samples collected from suspected cases and uninfected control sheep were stained by a standard protocol developed for PrP-sc detection in central nervous system tissues according 7Briefly slides were dewaxed rehydrated and treated in 98 formic a cid for 20 min prior to hydreated autoclaving for 30 min at 122cْ After blocking with normal goat serum dilution 1:66 sections staining monoclonal antibody RIDA MAbL42 the sections were rinsed and treated with biotinylated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G diluted 1:200 followed by treatment with vector Elite ABC and the color was developed with diaminobenzidine Results This study was conducted on a flock of 95 adult sheep East Friesian Breed all animals were treated with Ivermectin and vaccinated annually against the following enzootic infectious diseases Sheeppox Pest Des Petit Ruminants Foot and Mouth Disease The table 1 illustrate the distribution of animals according to clinical signs and their ages Table 1:Distribution of animals on the bases of clinical signs and age Number of clinically affected animals Number of clinically healthy animals Number of animals 25 2105 70 737 Age in years 3-5 1-2 Clinical findings : The clinical signs of the disease appear at age 3-5 years old morbidity rate 2105 affected animals starts by abnormal behaviour tendency where it separate itself from the flock then return normally if left undisturbed at rest howere when stimulated by excessive movement like handling or abnormal noise animals tremble or fall down ataxia tremor of the head and neck incoordination of locomotion pruritus loss wool emaciation despite retention of appetite and recumbency The recumbent animals are hyperexcitable tends to carry its head high and has fixed stare nibble at the affected area of the skin wool loss and denudation of skin The course of the disease from onset until recumbency lasts 3-6 months Gross Pathology ; There were no characteristic gross lesions Histopathology; Vacuolation of neurons in medulla Pons and midbrain surrounding cytoplasm showed signs of degeneration and Interstitial spongy degeneration often found and amyloid plaques sometimes as in Fig: 1 Immunohistochemistry: Positive staining of medulla oblingata pons and midbrain tissues were identified as strong Particulate and cytoplasmic staining in neurons of tissues as seen in Fig 2 while negative antibody were seen in control tissue Fig1: Vacuolation of several neurons with neuronal degeneration in the medulla oblongata of sheep Hematoxyline and Eosine X40 Fig 2: Positive immunohistochemistry of medulla oblongata of sheep showed abnormal accumulation of PrP X40 Discussion Scrapie recognized as a distinct disease of sheep in many countries its distributed widely in Europe North America and occur sporadically in countries in Africa and Asia 8 According to OIE International Animal Health code scrapie can be found under list B and within the European Unoin countries the disease has been a notifiable since January 19935 Most breeds of sheep are affected although in some there is a clear genetic basis for resistance or low prevalence of clinical disease scrapie has also been described in Moufflon Ovis musimon a primitive type of sheep such animal incubating the disease and that animal never develop clinical signs may still be a source of infection to others 9 Sheep are considered the natural hosts for scrapie agent a considerable body of evidence indicate that most sheep with scrapie were infected early in life and the agent has persisted within them in quiescent state during intervening period 1 Most Cases of clinical scrapie occur in sheep 2-5 years of age 10 Rarely Cases present in sheep under one year of age because in some instances the commercial lifespan of sheep may be too short to allow the clinical disease to develop 8 and these findings were similar to that found in comparing with the present study The encountered clinical findings in sheep were characterized by insidious onset abnormal behavior affected animal may lead or trail the rest of flock tremor nibbling ataxia incoordination of the gait pruritus lose weights and recumbency all these findings were in accordance with those previously reported151112A particular interest of this outbreak is its appearance among adult sheep with high morbidity rate 2105 in comparing with sporadically occurance in Europe5 The Pathological findings reported in this outbreak were prominent in the medulla Pons Mid-brain which characterized by interstitial spongy degeneration and all of these findings were in agreed with those previously reported 131415 The presence of prion protein in body cells with a high concentration on the surface of nerve cells in the brain due to proteinase K resistance which deposite on to the brain killing other nerve cells which leads to holes in spongiform diseases 16Immunohistochemistry appears to be useful in detecting scrapie in affected animals and remains promising as it is widely available and inexpensive17 The final diagnosis was based on the characteristic clinical signs histopathological findings and identification of the prion by immunohistochemistry References 1- Fraser H Scrapie in sheep and goats and related diseases In:Diseases of sheep Third edition Martin WB and Aitken ID Black-well scientific Ltd Oxford UK 2000 207-218 2- Richard T Johnson Review Prion diseases Lancet Neurol 20054: b35-42 3- Prusiner SB Novel Proteinaceaus infectious Particle Cause Scrapie 1982 Science: 216:136-44 4- Prusiner SB Prion: Novel infectious Pathogen 1984 Advance virus Res a29; 1-56 5- Office International Des Epizootics Manual of Diagnostic tests and Vaccine for Terrestrial animals- Scrapie 5th edition 2004 6- Luna LGManual of histologic staining methods of the Armed Force Institute of Pathology 3rd ed Newyork; MCGrow-Hill Book company 7- Miller JM Jenny Al Taylor WD Race RE Ernst DR Katz JB and Rubenstein R Detection of prion protein in Formalin-Fixed brain by hydrated autoclaving immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of Scrapie in sheep 1994 JvetDiagn Investing 16:366-368 8- Frederic A Murphy E Paul J Gibbs Marinac HozinekMichael J studdert Veterinary virology3rd ed Academic press Newyork 2003 P575-576 9- Wood J LN Lund LJ and Done SH The natural occurrence of scrapie in Moufflon 1992 Vet Rec- 130 25-27 10- Hoinville LJA review of the epidemiology of Scrapie in sheep Rev sci tech off IntEpiz 1996 15 827-852 11- Kimberline RH Scrapie Disease 1981 Br Vet J 137 105-112 12- Parry HB Scrapie Disease in sheep Historical Clinical Epidemiological pathological and practical Aspects of the natural diseaseOppenheimer DR ed Academic press London UK 1983 pp192 13- Jubb KVF Kennedy PC and Palmer N Pathology of Domestic Animals -3rd ed Vol-IAcademic Prees Newyork 1985 PP 305-307 14- Wood JLNMCGill IS Done SH and Bradley R Neuro Pathology of Scrapie: a Study of the distribution patterns of brain lesions in 222 cases of natural scrapie in sheep 1982-1991 1997 vet Rec 140167-174 15- Jeffry MMartins Gonzalezt Ryder SJ Bellwothy SJand Jackman R Differential diagnosis of infections with the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE and Scrapie agents in sheep 2001 J comp Pathol 125271-284 16- Pousiner SB Prions Proc Natl Acad sci USA 1998 95; 13363-83 17- Belt PB GM Muileman IH Schreuder BEC Gielken ALJand Smith MA Identification of Five allelic Variants of the sheep PrP gene and their association with natural scrapie 1995 Journal of general virology 76 509-517CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL AND CONTROL STUDIES OF MANGEhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL-AND-CONTROL-STUDIES-OF-MANGEPublished ArticlesCLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL AND CONTROL STUDIES OF MANGE CAUSED BY SARCOPTES SCABIE IN NATURALLY INFECTED SHEEP AND GOATS TULKAREM GOVERNORATE 1 SALAMEH BARHOOM 2 ABDUL HAFIEZ DALAAB Clinical Studies Faculty of Veterinary Medicine An-Najah National University PO Box 7 Nablus Palestine e-mail: 1 bsalameh@najahedu 2 vet821@hotmailcom Abstract: This study was conducted on total 235 sheep of 1-3 years-old East-Friesian and Awassi breeds and 35 goats of 6 months 3 years old Anglo-Nubi and Cross Breeds housed in separated pens in Tulkarem Governorate The rates of naturally infected sheep and goats with sarcoptes scabie were 9362 and1492 respectively The clinical findings of the disease were confined to the head region and were characterized by pruritis of skin erythema papules formation alopecia and scabs formation Animals were emaciated weakened and had reduced milk production The skin was also thichened and wrinkled The morbidity rate was 100 Histolopathologically there were hyperkeratosis parakeratosis Acanthuses of the epidermis with the presence of mite The diagnosis of the disease was based on clinical manifestation and identification of Sarcoptes Scabiei and their developmental stages in skin scrapings Infected animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously at a dose of 1ml50kg body weight KEYWORDS: Sheep Goats Sarcoptes Scabiei mite Tulkarem Ivermectin دراسات ظاهرية - باثولوجية والسيطرة على جرب Sarcoptes Scabiei في اغنام وماعز معدية طبيعيا في محافظة طولكرم 1 سلامة برهوم 2 عبد الحفيظ دلعب الدراسات الإكلينيكية كلية الطب البيطري جامعة النجاح الوطنية ص ب 7 نابلس - فلسطين بريد الكتروني : 1 bsalameh@najahedu 2 vet821@hotmailcom الملخص : أجريت هذه الدراسة على 235 رأس غنم سلالة الفريزين الشرقي والعواسي عمر 1-3 سنوات و235 رأس ماعز سلالة أنجلو نوبي والخليط عمر ستة أشهر إلى ثلاث سنوات محصورة في حظائر منفصلة في محافظة طولكرم وانحصرت العلامات السريرية في منطقة الرأس، وكانت نسبة الاصابه في الاغنام والماعز المعدية طبيعيا بالساركوبتس سكابياي9362 و1492 على التوالي وتميزت بوجود حكة في الجلد ، احمرار ، تكون حُطاطات ، تساقط الصوف ، وتكون قشور ،و نحول الحيوانات وضعفها ، وانخفاض في إنتاج الحليب كما ظهر الجلد سميكا ومجعدا أما نسبة الإصابة فكانت 100 أما الفحص النسيجي فأظهر زيادة وفرط في التقرن مع Acanthusis ووجود حلم الجرب لقد تم تشخيص المرض اعتمـاداً على العلامـات السريريـة والتغيرات المرضية وتصنيف حلم الجرب Sarcoptes Scabiei وأطواره المختلفة الموجوده بالكشطا الجلديه وتأكيد ذلك بالاستعانة بالمختبرات المتخصصة تم علاج الحيوانات المصابة بعقار افرمكتين تحت الجلد وبجرعة 1ml50kg لكل كجم من وزن الحيوان الكلمات الدالة : اغنام ، ماعز ، حلم ساركوبتك سكابي ، طولكرم ، افرمكتين Introduction Mange is a form of ectoparasaite dermatitis characterized by encrustation alopecia and pruritis of the skin initiated and maintained by a number of mite species Sarcoptes Scabiei mite causes Sarcoptic mange Scabies in mammals including human and marsupials There are several subtypes of this organism including Sscabiei var hominis Sscabiei var canis Sscabiei var suis Sscabiei var equ i Sscabiei var bovis Sscabiei var ovis some of them are specific to their hosts Human had proved to be infested by scabies mite of dog pigs cattle sheep horse ferrets water buffalo Lamas camels and some wild or zoo animals 1 Recent investigation is based on molecular analysis of the ITS-2 of the rRNA gene suggest that the genus Sarcoptes is monospecific 2 Female Sarcoptic mite burrows tunnel within the epidermis of the infested host The entire four stage life cycle is spent on the host Over 10-15day period the female deposits 40-50 eggs within the tunnel 3-4 weeks after egg deposition the female dies Larvae emerge from the egg in 3-5 days and escape from the tunnel and wander on the skin surface but some remain in the parent tunnel or side pockets of it and continue there development there as far as the nymphal stage Nymph becomes sexually active adults in 12-17 days the adult female remain in the pockets until it becomes fertilized by a male and the life cycle begins again The disease caused by Sarcoptes sabiei is contagious The parasites pierce the skin to suck lymph and epidermal cells thus causing marked irritation which causes intense itching and scratching The resulting inflammation of the skin is accompanied by an exudate which coagulates and forms crusts on the surface and is further characterized by excessive keratinisation and proliferation of connective tissue with the rustle that the skin becomes much thickened and wrinkled There is a concomitant loss of hair 3 A firm diagnosis of scabie or mange must be based on the recovery and identification of the mite from the affected hosts by taking skin scrapings from the edges of visible lesions 5 The present study tried to diagnose an outbreak of skin lesion infesting four flocks of sheep and goats in Tulkarem where clinical pathological and parasitological studies were conducted Materials and Methods Flock history: An outbreak of skin lesion in four flocks of total 235 sheep and goats A B C and D was investigated All animals were vaccinated annually against the following enzootic infectious diseases : Sheep pox Pest Des Petit Ruminants Foot and Mouth Disease This study was conducted in April 2007 in Tulkarem Governorate north Palestine Clinical and Parasitological examinations : Complete clinical examination was preformed on the affected flocks Specimens from the edge of the lesions from different parts head ears face and lips were taken by scalpel and collected in Petri dishes containing 70 alcohol Parts of them were sent to the department of Parasitology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Jordan University of Science and Technology Irbid PO Box 3030Jordan for mite identification and classification Histopathological examination : Biopsy from the lesions were collected and fixed in 10 neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathology Hematoxlin Eosin stain 7 Control measures : All animals were injected subcutaneously with Ivermectin A macro-Cyclolactone produced from Sreptomyces avermitilis Merc sharp Dohme Research Laboratories Rahway NJHSA at a dose rate 02 mgkg body weight animals that showed poor clinical recovery received a second dose after 3 weeks from the first one Results : The present study showed that 220 out of 235 sheep 9362 and 35 out of 235 of goats 1492 suffered from Sarcoptic mange table 1 Table 1 : Illustrates number of animals breeds species and ages which affected by sarcoptic mange Flock Number of affected animals Breed Age in years A 120 East-Friesian Sheep 1-3 B 40 East-Friesian Sheep 2-3 C 20 East-Friesian Sheep 2-3 20 Awassi sheep 2-3 D 20 Cross breed goats 2-3 15 Anglo-Nubi goats 1-3 Clinical findings : Animals suffered from intense pruritis and los of hair they rubbed the affected area against wall of the pen the lesions appeared in non-woolly portions of the body mainly confined to the face emaciation weakness and reduce milk production were also recorded Morbidity rate was 100 in both adult animals and their offsprings The lesions were characterized by the presence of small red papules and general erythema which started near the mouth lips nostrils and spread to other parts of the face and then to the skin of head and ears Later on the animals showed much scratching and biting of the skin were also seen as well were thick brown scabs formation and thickening accompanied with wrinkling of the surrounding skin Fig 2 Parasitological examination: Skin scrapings examination reveals different developmental stages of mites which were diagnosed according to 7 as sarcoptes scabiei Fig1 Fig1 Adult sarcoptes scabiei mite Showing globos body short legs unregimented pedicels stalk with suckers on the end Fig2 Head of sheep showing thickened and wrinkled lesions covered with crusts due to sarcoptes scabie infestation Histopathological examination: There were hyperkeratosis parakeratosis and Acanthuses of the epidermis with presence of mite Thick crust as result of large number of dead and viable neutrophils serum and keratin were present adjacent to the Fig3 Hyperkeratosis of the epidermis of skin with the presence of sarcoptes scabiei mite Control measures: administration of Ivermectin had proved to improve thegeneral condition of the skin and disappearance of the crust were noticed Discussion Sarcoptic or head mange in sheep caused by Sarcoptes scabiei varovis had been recorded in Europe Africa The middle East The Balkan India and South and Central America but has never been recorded in UK 8 Poor conditioned animals appeared to be the most susceptible to infection Overcrowding poor feeding and general mismanagement appeared to be the main cause of scabies among sheep and goat in the presents study In sheep Sarcoptes scabiei varovis was rare and affected only sparsely haired parts of the body such as face and ears 8 In the present study clinical findings in sheep and goat wrer similar in the four flocks and were confined to the head region The lesions were characterized by pruritis papules formation scratching of the skin alopecia scab formation and thickening wrinkling of the skin These findings were in agreement with those reported by 3 and 9 The diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in sheep is based on clinical manifestations and demonstration of Sarcoptic scabiei in skin scrapings 10 and 11 The gross and histopathological findings in this study were agreement with those reported by 12 the causative agent was referred to Sarcoptic scabiei mite The infection rate in the present study was 9362 among sheep and 149 among goats this great range between sheep and goats infection was referred to the susceptibility of the species and subtype of the causative agent Concerning control measures Ivermectin had proved to be the drug of choice to eradicate the infection It acts by inhibiting signal transmission at the neuromuscler junctions As causing paralysis to mites which then die References : 1- Office International Des Epizooties 2005 Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccine for terrestrial animal Acariaisis Last update may 1 1-9 2- Zahler MEssig A Gothe HT Rinder H 1999Moleculer analysis suggests monopecificity of the genus Sarcoptes Acar:Sarcoptidae IntJParasitol 29759-766 3- Solusby Ej1982Helminths Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated animals Billary Tindell7th edition 482-484 4- Barker AS1999Mites and Ticks of domestic animals An identification guide and information source The Natural History Museum London Her Majestys stationary office UK 5- Andersonn GGordon KC 1999 Tissue Processing Microtomy and paraffin section In:Bancroft JDSterense ATheory and practice of histopathological techniques 4th edEdinburghChurchill livingstone :47-86 6- Bates PG2000 Ectoparasites In: Diseases of sheep Marten WB Aitken ID Black well Sciarco205-296 7- RadostotsOM Blood DCGay CC1997 Veterinary Medicine Atext book of the diseases of cattle sheep pigs goats and horses 8th edition WB Sauders company Ltd London Philadelphia Toronto Sydney Tokyo 1305-1307 8- Coles FH1986Veterinary clinical pathology WR Saunders company Philadelphia Toronto second edition P 488 9- Kettle DS1995 Medical and Veterinary entomology Second edition CAB international Walling ford Oxan ox 108 DE UK 10- Donald Mc Gavin M and Zachary JI Pathologic basis of veterinary diseases Fourth edition Elsevir Mosby 2007: 1300 AN OUTBREAK OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN ADULT GOATShttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/AN-OUTBREAK-OF-TOXOPLASMOSIS-IN-ADULT-GOATSPublished ArticlesAN OUTBREAK OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN ADULT GOATS 1-SALAMEH BARHOOM 2-ABD EL-HAFEED DALAB 3- ZAIN ALABEDEIN ABU ALWAFA Clinical studies Faculty of Vet Med An- Najah National University Po Box 7 Nablus-Palestine E-mail :1-bsalameh@najahedu2-vet821@hotmailcom 3- zainabualwafa@yahoocom Abstract: Clinical pathological and serological studies were conducted in a flock of 30 goats between the ages of 2-3 years old cross breed suffering from Toxoplasmosis in Palestine The clinical findings of the disease were: Pyrexia lethargy repeated abortion Stillbirth or death of weak Kids and some accompanied by a mummified fetus Morbidity rate was 100 Gross lesion of the fetal membranes showed odema of the intercotyledonary chorioallantois and white foci of necrosis approximately 2-3 mm in diameter visible in cotyledon Histopathology showed that the cotyledonary lesions are distinctive and consist of multiple foci of necrosis and brain showed focal microgliosis The clinico-pathological diagnosis was supported serologically by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA using a reference Toxoplasma gondii IgG Kit ELISA The results showed four folds rising in the titer of antibodies during the course of acute stage and convalescent one after abortion KEYWORDS: Goat Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasmosis abortion cotyledon ELISA تفشي داء المقوسات في قطيع من الماعز البالغ 1- سلامة برهوم 2- عبد الحفيظ دلعب 3- زين العابدين ابو الوفا الدراسات الاكلينيكية كلية الطب البيطري جامعة النجاح الوطنية ص ب 7 نابلس فلسطين الملخص : لقد اجريت دراسات سريرية ، مرضية ومصلية على قطيع من الماعزعدده 30 راساويتراوح عمره بين 2-3 سنوات خليط السلالة والذي يعاني من داء المقوسات في فلسطين ، لقد تميزت العلامات السريرية بحمى ، الخمول ، اجهاض متكرر او نفوق الجديان الضعيفة والمرافقة تكون متحنطة ، نسبة الاصابة 100 الافات المرضية الظاهرة على السخد اظهرت وجود خزب بين الفلقات والغشاء اللقانقي المشيمي ، وجود حبيبات متعدد بيضاء صغيرة قطرها 2-3 ملم تقريبا على سطح الفلقات ، الفحص النسيجي لافات الفلقات كان مميزا ويتكون من عدة بؤر تنخرية ، اما نسيج المخ اظهر وجود microgliosis ،لقد عزز التشخيص السريري المرضي بالاستعانة باختيار الاليزا ELISA Toxoplasma gondii IgG Kit والذي اظهر وجود ارتفاع اربع اضعاف من مستوى الاجسام المضادة خلال فترة النقاهية مقارنة مع الفترة الحادة من الاجهاض الكلمات الدالة : ماعز ، داء المقوسات ، اجهاض ، الفلقات ، الاليزا Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of animals caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii The parasite is an obligate intracellular parasite occurring worldwide in domestic cats and occasionally other members of cat family Felidae as final host while man and other animals are intermediate host The final host is responsible for widespread transmission of this parasite through fecal contamination of pasture soil feed concentrate and occasionally water In sheep and goats toxoplasmosis causes abortion or the birth of weak lambs and kids which may accompanied by a mummified fetus while aborted ewe or doe remains clinically normal2 Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and pathological finding and isolation of T gondii from placental and fetal tissues However if the placenta is not available or is decomposed diagnosis can be confirmed by testing for the presence of antibody against Tgondii in the fetal fluid or sera using various serological tests such as indirect Haemagglutination indirect Immunofluorescent IFAT or Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay ELISA 3 This study investigates an outbreak of Toxoplasmosis in adult goats recently encountered in Palestine where clinical pathological and serological studies were conducted Materials and methods An outbreak of Toxoplasmosis occurring in a private farm with 30 goats cross breed between the ages of 2 -3 years old was investigated the disease appeared in Tulkarem Governorate Northern Palestine Complete clinical examination was performed on the flock in March of 2007 the aborted does and their fetuses were both subjected to examination Specimen from placenta cotyledons and brain of the fetuses were collected and fixed in a 10 neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathology Hematoxylin Eosin stain 4 Two blood samples were collected from aborted does the first one after abortion and the second four weeks later Sera were separated and tested using original ELISA 5 for estimation the level of antibodies using a soluble antigen preparation made from Toxoplasma RH strain tachygoites layered into wells in microtiter plate Test sera are added followed by an anti-species enzyme labeled conjugate such as horseradish peroxidase - labelled anti - ovine IgG Any attached conjugated causes a colour change in the substrate that is directly related to the amount of the bound antibody which can be read with spectrophotometer at absorbance specific to the substrate used The defined anti species conjugate substrate whole Kit used was toxoplasma gondii IgG Kit ELISA Results This study was conducted on flock of 30 adult goats cross-breed that were housed in close pen main ration consisted of concentrate and straw the supplied water was tap water All animals were treated with Ivermectin and vaccinated annually against the following enzootic infectious diseases: Brucellosis Sheep pox Pest Des Petit Ruminant and Foot and Mouth disease Clinical finding: All animals appeared clinically normal before abortion the prominent clinical sign in the flock was repeated abortion in successive pregnancies and occurs in the last trimester of pregnancy stillbirth mummification of fetuses congenital anomalies and weak kids were observed Table I illustrates the number of aborted animals and average of their gestation periods Aborted doe showed pyrexia and lethargy Morbidity rate was 100 Table 1: Number of aborted animals and average of their gestation period in days Total kidding Abortion number Stillbirth number Mummified fetus Gestation period days 14 8 57 4 29 2 1 4 130-136 16 10 78 6 43 0 120-140 Gross pathology: There was edema of the intercotyledonary chorinoallantois and numerous white foci of necrosis approximately 2 3 mm in diameter visible in cotyledons as seen in fig 1 Fig 1 Placenta of aborted doe showed numerous white foci of necrosis on cotyledons Histopathology: the cotyledonary lesions were distinctive and consist of multiple foci of necrosis and the brain showed focal microgliosis Estimation level of antibodies: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay showed the level of antibodies in acute first sera after abortion and convalescent stage second sera four weeks after abortion in the table number II Table II: Illustrate the level of antibodies optical demity in the tested sera by ELISA in both acute and convalescent stage Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean Average age years 21 18 17 27 3 14 26 34 23 07 21 Abortion within last 2 years 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 1 Acute 338 344 346 386 405 425 608 345 315 338 351 convalescent 2584 2457 2531 2345 2258 2583 2585 2354 1853 2765 2178 Discussion Toxoplasmosis is a disease that causes abortions weak Kids stillbirth birth defects and fetal mummification in pregnant does 9 as we encountered in our clinical findings Cats are the carriers of this protozoan known as Toxoplasma gondii Cats especially kitten less than six months of age pass the oocysts through their feces when they eat infected rodents raw meat or placenta of Toxoplasmosis infected animals 10 Goats become infected with the parasite when they eat grains or hay that has been contaminated by cat feces containing Tgondii oocyste 11 as we saw in this study The disease is the second common cause of abortion in goats in Palestine 12 and the rise in the level of antibodies in paired serum sample of aborted doe and four folds is considered as diagnostic method for the disease as reported by 2 and we found it in the present study by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay In this study the clinical findings in aborted does were abortion in the late gestation period mummified fetuses stillbirth with gross lesions foci of fetal membranes and presence of necrotic foci of necrosis in cotyledon were previously reported by 1 2 4 The existence of necrotic foci in cotyledons and detection in the rise of antibody titer and four fold in convalescent phase of aborted animal than acute phase all were diagnostic for the disease and they were in agreement with the findings of 11 7 8 We strongly recommend to isolating all aborted animals from the flock Also The pregnant females should not exposed to infected cat feces Finally cats should not be allowed to enter goat farms and fetal membranes should not be fed to cats Reference 1 Office International des Epizooties OIE Toxoplasmosis In: Manual of diagnostic test and vaccine for terrestrial animal 3rd edition 2004 1 10 2 John G Mattews Diseases of goat Second edition published by Blackwell Science 1999 26 -28 3 Voller A Bidwell DE Bartltt A Flek DGPerkins M and Oladehin B A Microplate enzyme Immunoassy for Toxoplasma antibody J Clin patholo 1976 29 150 153 4 Buxton DToxoplasmosis and neosporosis In: Diseases of sheep Martin WB and Aitken ID Blackwell Scinnce Oxford UK 2000 86 94 5 Anderson G Gordon KC Tissue processing Microtomy and paraffin section In: Bancroft JDSterense A Theory and practice of histopathological techniquesfourth ed Edinburgh Churchill livingstone 1999: 47 -86 6 Hill D Dubey JP Toxoplasma gondii : Transmission diagnosis and prevention clinical micobiological and infection 2002 8 10 : 634 40 7 M Donald Mc Gavin and James I Zachary Pathologic basis of veterinary diseases Fourth edition Elsevir Mosby 2007: 1300 8 M Radostits Dc Blood and cc Gay Veterinary Medicine of domestic animals eight edition W Bsaunders Company Ltd London Philadelphia Toronto and Tokyo1997: 120 204 9 Dubey JP and BeattieCP Toxoplasmosis of animals and manBoca Raton Fla:CRC Press Inc 1988 1-220 10 Dubey JPFrenkel JK Feline Toxoplasmosis from acutely infected mice and the development of Toxoplasma cysts J Protozoa 1976; 23: 237-546 11 Dubey JPStatus of Toxoplasmosis in sheep and goat in the United States J and Vet Med Assol 1990; 196:259 262 12 Barhoom S Causes of abortion in Palestine Unpublished Data Outbreak of Maedi-Visna in Sheep and Goats in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/Outbreak-of-Maedi-Visna-in-Sheep-and-Goats-in-Palestine-1Published Articles Clinical and laboratory studies in an outbreak of Maedi-visna disease in a flock of sheep and goats were conducted The clinical findings of the disease were loss of wool dyspnea and coughing progressive condition loss exercise intolerance and chronic mastitis Nervous signs were developed later and were characterized by gait abnormalities of the hind limbs ataxia tremor of facial muscles and recumbency A definitive diagnosis was made by characteristic clinical history gross and histopathological lesions and detection of seropositive animals by ELISA Enzootic Abortion of Ewes (Ovine Chlamydiosis): Diagnosis and controlhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/Enzootic-Abortion-of-Ewes-Ovine-Chlamydiosis-Diagnosis-and-controlPublished ArticlesThis study was conducted on two flocks of sheep East - Friesian Breed suffering from outbreak of Enzootic Ovine Abortion EOA in North Palestine The clinical findings in ewes were abortion in the second half of gestation period mummified dead fetuses and stillbirth pyrexia anorexia dark red or clay colored vaginal discharges and retention of placentas The causative agent was isolated on yolk sac of embryonated hen egg 6-8 days old from aborted fetuses vaginal discharges placentas and identified by detection of elementary bodies in primary impression smears prepared from aborted fetuses vaginal discharges placentas and Chlamydiophilia abortus antigen by sandwich method Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA The disease was controlled by using three successive doses of long acting oxy tetracycline intramuscularly at a dose rate 20 mg\kg body weightOutbreak of Maedi-Visna in Sheep and Goats in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/Outbreak-of-Maedi-Visna-in-Sheep-and-Goats-in-PalestineOn Going ResearchesAbstract: Clinical and laboratory studies in an outbreak of Maedi-visna disease in a flock of sheep and goats were conducted The clinical findings of the disease were loss of wool dyspnea and coughing progressive condition loss exercise intolerance and chronic mastitis Nervous signs were developed later and were characterized by gait abnormalities of the hind limbs ataxia tremor of facial muscles and recumbency A definitive diagnosis was made by characteristic clinical history gross and histopathological lesions and detection of seropositive animals by ELISA Key words: Outbreak; small ruminants; Maedi-visna; Palesti