An-Najah Blogs :: http://blogs.najah.edu/author/emp_2275 An-Najah Blogs :: en-us Thu, 21 Nov 2019 17:34:36 IST Thu, 21 Nov 2019 17:34:36 IST webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu Biocontrol of stored grain insects and postharvest rot diseases in fresh produce of fruits and vegetables in Palestine http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Biocontrol-of-stored-grain-insects-and-postharvest-rot-diseases-in-fresh-produce-of-fruits-and-vegetables-in-Palestine-Published ArticlesBiocontrol of stored grain insects and postharvest rot diseases in fresh produce of fruits and vegetables in Palestine Y Batta Department of Plant Production Protection Faculty of Agriculture An-Najah National University Nablus West Bank Palestine Abstract The objective of the present poster was to summarize the research results obtained during the last five years due to application of biopesticides for protection of the stored grain from insect damage and the fresh produce of fruits and vegetables from postharvest fungal rot infection Bioprotection of stored grain from insects was achieved by application of effective mycoinsecticides like the entomopathogenic fungi [eg Metarhizium anisopliae Batta 2004c and 2005a; Batta and Abu Safieh 2005 and Beauveria bassiana Batta 2008] formulated in novel liquid or dry forms whereas bioprotection of fresh produce of fruit and vegetables from fungal rot pathogens was obtained by application of effective mycofungicides like antagonistic fungi [eg Trichoderma harzianum Batta 2004a 2004b 2005b 2006 and 2007] formulated in invert emulsion Many species of stored grain insects [eg Sitophilus oryzae 2004c and 2008 Rhyzopertha dominica Batta 2005a and 2008 and Tribolium castaneum Batta and Abu Safieh 2005 and Batta 2008] and plant pathogens of fresh produce [eg Botrytis cinerea Batta 2004b and 2007 Penicillium expansum Batta 2004a and 2007 Alternaria alternata Batta 2005b Rhizopus stolonifer Batta 2006 and 2007 and Mucor pyriformis Batta 2006] were effectively controlled by application of the above-mentioned biopesticides during the research conducted It is thus concluded that the above types of biopesticdes could be used successfully in the grain stores and in the containers of fresh produce of fruit and vegetables for bioprotection of these commodities Moreover no health or environmental risk that may be associated by application of these types of biopesticides References Batta Y A 2004a Effect of treatment with Trichoderma harzianum Rifai formulated in invert emulsion on postharvest decay of apple blue mold Internat J Food Microbiol 96 281-288 Batta Y A 2004b Postharvest biological control of apple gray mold by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai formulated in an invert emulsion Crop Protection 23 19-26 Batta Y A 2004c Control of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae L Coleoptera : Curculionidae with various formulations of Metarhizium anisoplie Crop Protection 23 103-108 Batta Y A 2005a Control of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica F Coleoptera: Bostrichidae by treatments with residual formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae Metch Sorokin Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes J Stored Products Res 41 221-229 Batta Y A 2005b Control of Alternaria spot disease on loquat using detached fruits and leaf-disk assay An-Najah Univer J Res: Natural Sci 19 69-81 Batta Y A and Abu Safieh D I 2005 A study of treatment effect with Metarhizium anisopliae and four types of dusts on wheat grain infestation with red flour beetles Tribolium castaneum Herbs Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae The Islamic Univer Gaza J 13 11-22 Batta Y A 2006 Postharvest control of soft-rot fungi on grape berries by fungicidal treatment and Trichoderma J Appl Hortic 8 29-32 Batta Y A 2007 Control of postharvest diseases of fruit with an invert emulsion formulation of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Postharvest Biol Technol 43 143-150 Batta Y A 2008 Control of main stored-grain insects with new formulations of entomopathogenic fungi in diatomaceous earth dusts Internat J Food Engineering 4 1 Art 9 16 p Presenting author information Y Batta An-Najah National University POBox 7 Nablus Palestine Phone: 972 9 2395105 Fax: 972 9 2395105 E-mail: yabatta@najahedu permanent; yacoubbatta@adelaideeduau present Prefered type of presentation please indicate Oral x Poster Control of Main Stored-Grain Insects with New Formulations of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Diatomaceous Earth Dustshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Control-of-Main-Stored-Grain-Insects-with-New-Formulations-of-Entomopathogenic-Fungi-in-Diatomaceous-Earth-DustsPublished ArticlesThe present research is aimed at a formulation of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana Bal Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae Metch Sorokin in two types of diatomaceous earth dusts fossil shield and Silico-Sec are then applied against the adults of three species of stored-grain insects: Sitophilus oryzae L Rhyzopertha dominica Fab and Tribolium castaneum Herbs Effect of the treatment was assessed by comparing the mortality percentage of the adults of the three insect species exposed to the formulated fungi with that of the adults exposed to the unformulated fungi or the diatomaceous earth dusts or the undisturbed control Results obtained from these exposures have indicated that treatment of the adults with the formulated fungi resulted in a significantly higher mean mortality percentage compared to the treatment with the unformulated fungi or the diatomaceous earth dusts or the undisturbed control A synergistic interaction between the effect of fungal species and the diatomaceous earth dusts was shown Viability of conidia of both fungal species in diatomaceous earth dusts was assessed by calculating the germination percentage of the conidia over time Results indicated a small loss of mean germination percentage for formulated conidia of both fungal species versus a high loss of mean germination percentage for the unformulated conidia thus the diatomaceous earth dusts used in the formulation of both fungi demonstrated a negligible effect on the viability of formulated conidia compared to the unformulated International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol 4 : Iss 1 Article 9 http:wwwbepresscomijfevol4iss1art9Evaluation of local wheat cultivars susceptibility to infection with black stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Evaluation-of-local-wheat-cultivars-susceptibility-to-infection-with-black-stem-rust-Puccinia-graminis-f-sp-triticiPublished ArticlesThe present study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of seven local wheat cultivars from Palestine to infection with black stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f sp tritici Two techniques of disease inoculation were applied during bioassays: global inoculation of entire wheat plants with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores on wheat leaf-pieces incubated under humid conditions Susceptibility of tested cultivars was evaluated according to disease scale based on number and size of typical uredial pustules that appeared after inoculation on entire plants or leaf-pieces Results obtained on bioassay of susceptibility and disease rating on entire plants indicated that Anbar Kamatat and Hetiya safra cultivars were the least susceptible to P g tritici infection whereas Debiya beda cultivar was the most susceptible The other tested cultivars such as Nab-El-Jamal Debiya sawda and Senf 870 were moderately susceptible On leaf-pieces Anbar and Kamatat were the least susceptible cultivars whereas Debiya beda and Nab-El-Jamal were the most susceptible cultivars The other tested cultivars such as Debiya sawda Serif 870 and Hetiya safra were moderately susceptible Significant reductions were obtained for the size of uredial pustules formed on leaf-pieces when inoculated in an unwounded state compared to the wounded indicating the importance of wounds during inoculation The global results indicated the possibility of using the above method of disease inoculating scaling and rating for evaluation of wheat cultivars susceptibility for the eventual use in breeding program for resistant varieties in Palestine ARAB GULF JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHVolume: 25Issue: 3Pages: 95-101Published: SEP 2007Biocontrol of almond bark beetle (Scolytus amygdali Geurin-Meneville, Coleoptera: Scolytidae) using Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Biocontrol-of-almond-bark-beetle-Scolytus-amygdali-Geurin-Meneville-Coleoptera-Scolytidae-using-Beauveria-bassiana-Bals-Vuill-Deuteromycotina-HyphomycetesPublished ArticlesAims: To formulate the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in invert emulsion then apply it against adults of almond bark beetle Scolytus amygdali under laboratory and field conditions Methods and Results: The effect of formulated B bassiana in invert emulsion against S amygdali adults was shown by comparing the mortality percentage of adults exposed to the formulated fungus using a Petri dish treatment method and by field applications to infested peach trees with mortality of adults exposed to the unformulated fungus or the untreated control Results obtained from both exposure methods have indicated that treatment of S amygdali adults with the formulated fungus resulted in a significantly higher mean mortality percentage P 005 when compared with the treatment with the unformulated fungus or the untreated control This mortality ranged from 812 to 100 10 days after treatment with the formulated fungus when compared with 67 to 496 mortality 10 days after treatment with the control or the unformulated fungus respectively Viability of the fungus conidia in invert emulsion was assessed by calculating the germination percentage of the conidia over time Results indicated a high storage stability shown by a small loss of germination percentage for the formulated conidia of both strains 58 to 84 over a 12-week period vs a low storage stability shown by a high loss of germination percentage for the unformulated conidia of the same strains 589 to 610 over the same period The presence of B bassiana in the galleries of beetles following the treatment of infested trees was shown in the present research Conclusions: The results obtained have demonstrated a significantly higher level of efficacy of formulated B bassiana in invert emulsion against S amygdali adults under laboratory and field conditions The ingredients of invert emulsion used in the formulation of the fungus had a negligible effect on the viability of formulated conidia when compared with the unformulated Significance and Impact of the Study: Results obtained in the present research are promising and may be exploited commercially to control S amygdali adults on various species of stone fruit trees especially peach trees This type of biocontrol of this insect may be used as an alternative means to chemical control for management of the insect No adverse environmental impacts of the fungus or its formulation have been observed during application Journal of Applied Microbiology Volume 103 Issue 5 Pages 1406 - 1414 http:www3intersciencewileycomjournal118490598abstractControl of postharvest diseases of fruit with an invert emulsion formulation of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Control-of-postharvest-diseases-of-fruit-with-an-invert-emulsion-formulation-of-Trichoderma-harzianum-Rifai-Published ArticlesControl of primary postharvest diseases caused by Rhizopus stolonifer Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum on a variety of fresh fruit was evaluated with an invert emulsion formulation of Trichoderma harzianum Diseases evaluated were quantified by the period of protection conferred by the antagonist and the diameter of decay lesions Treatment of the various fruit species with formulated T harzianum conidia in an invert emulsion significantly P 005 reduced the mean lesion diameters of R stolonifer on apple pear peach and strawberry B cinerea on grape pear strawberry and kiwifruit and P expansum on grape pear and kiwifruit in comparison with the control treatment Significant differences P 005 were obtained in the mean percent reduction in lesion diameter caused by the same postharvest pathogens on the same fruit species due to the treatment with the formulated T harzianum conidia relative to control treatment The greatest mean percent reduction 867 was obtained on apple fruit for the infection with R stolonifer Significant differences P 005 were also obtained in the mean durations of the minimum protection period due to treatment with the formulated T harzianum against the infection with the same postharvest pathogens on the same fruit species The longest mean duration of the minimum protection period up to 59 days was obtained for unwounded apple fruit against the infection with R stolonifer Overall the results indicate that the treatment with the invert emulsion formulation of T harzianum protected fruit from infection by the primary postharvest pathogens of the fruit tested for up to 2 months and reduced the diameters of decay lesion up to 86 and is a promising treatment to prolong the postharvest shelf-life of fresh fruit Postharvest Biology and Technology Volume 43 Issue 1 January 2007 Pages 143-150 http:dxdoiorg101016jpostharvbio200607010Effect of the combined use of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin and diatomaceous earth for the control of three stored-product beetle specieshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Effect-of-the-combined-use-of-Metarhizium-anisopliae-Metschinkoff-Sorokin-and-diatomaceous-earth-for-the-control-of-three-stored-product-beetle-speciesPublished ArticlesLaboratory bioassays were conducted in order to evaluate the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Metschinkoff Sorokin Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against adults of three stored-grain beetle species Rhyzopertha dominica F Coleoptera: Bostrychidae Sitophilus oryzae L Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Two fungal preparations were compared a conidial suspension and a conidial powder These were applied to wheat at three dosages 8106 8108 and 81010conidiakg of wheat alone or in combination with the diatomaceous earth DE formulation SilicoSec Biofa Gbmh Germany applied at 05gkg of wheat Adult insects were exposed to treated wheat for 24h 48h 7d and 14d The mortality of R dominica adults after 14d of exposure to the treated substrate was 100 and 96 at the dosages in combination for the suspension and the powder respectively The respective figures without DE were 944 and 746 In contrast against S oryzae adults the application of conidial suspension combined with DE was not as effective as the application of DE alone Adult mortality of S oryzae increased notably on wheat treated with the conidial powder Similarly the conidial suspension with or without DE was not as effective against T confusum as the conidial powder The progeny production of R dominica on wheat treated with the highest suspension dosage with or without DE was significantly lower than that for the other aqueous fungal dosages Moreover significantly less progeny were produced on wheat treated with the highest dosage of powder conidia combined with DE in comparison with the other treatments In contrast S oryzae progeny production was notably reduced only in wheat treated with the highest dosage of fungal spore powder mixed with DE No T confusum progeny were found on wheat treated with the highest dosage of both fungal preparations combined with DE Crop Protection Volume 25 Issue 10 October 2006 Pages 1087-1094 http:dxdoiorg101016jcropro200602009 Postharvest control of soft-rot fungi on grape berries by fungicidal treatment and Trichodermahttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Postharvest-control-of-soft-rot-fungi-on-grape-berries-by-fungicidal-treatment-and-TrichodermaPublished ArticlesThe present research deals with the effect of postharvest treatment of grape berries with four commonly used fungicides and two forms of Trichoderma harzianum on the infection with soft-rot fungi- Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor piriformis This effect was evaluated by comparison of the external diameter of rot-lesion in treated and untreated berries in addition to comparison of percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control Results indicated that the infection with R stolonifer and M piriformis was significantly reduced P005 in all treated berries in comparison with untreated control berries The highest reduction in mean external rot-lesion diameter was obtained for both R stolonifer and M piriformis when inoculated berries were treated with Score difenoconazole applied at 035vv or Switch cyprodinil flodioxonil applied at 020wv or formulated T harzianum conidia in invert emulsion applied at 96x108 conidiaml of formulation 135 132 and 193 mm respectively for R stolonifer; 72 75 and 192mm respectively for M piriformis The greatest decrease in percent reduction in external rot-lesion diameter relative to control was also obtained for both the fungal species when inoculated berries were treated with the same type of fungicides Score and Switch and Trichoderma formulated T harzianum in invert emulsion 609 617 and 441 respectively for R stolonifer; 745 734 and 319 respectively for M piriformis Overall results indicate that the most effective treatment obtained on grape berries could be integrated with other control measures being usually used in grape berry-rot management plans by alternating fungicidal treatment eg Score or Switch with application of formulated T harzianum conidia in invert emulsionQuantitative postharvest contamination and transmission of Penicillium expansum (Link) conidia to nectarine and pear fruit by Drosophila melanogaster (Meig.) adults http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Quantitative-postharvest-contamination-and-transmission-of-Penicillium-expansum-Link-conidia-to-nectarine-and-pear-fruit-by-Drosophila-melanogaster-Meig-adults-Published ArticlesThis research demonstrated the possibility of conidial transmission of Penicillium expansum by the adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster to mature sound nectarine and pear fruit This transmission was accomplished by inserting the fungal conidia adhering either to mouthparts of the contaminated flies or to their abdominal tip into mature sound nectarine and pear fruit while making punctures in the fruit skin either for feeding or for oviposition Accordingly the mean number of typical P expansum lesions that appeared due to this transmission per one nectarine or pear fruit subjected to contaminated flies was 47 and 25 respectively Also the mean diameter of these typical lesions was 53 and 32mm on the same types of fruit respectively When the eggs laid by the contaminated females of D melanogaster were left to develop until adult fly emergence the mean number of the flies that emerged per fruit at the end of the life cycle was 483 and 243 on nectarine and pear fruit respectively Also the mean life cycle duration for the emerged flies was 243 and 287 days on the same types of fruit respectively Moreover viability of the pathogen conidia that either adhered externally to the various body parts of the contaminated flies or were introduced into their bodies was tested by plating the conidia onto oatmeal agar plates amended with chloramphenicol following the release of the contaminated flies onto plates or the spread of their ground suspension in saline solution onto the same type of plates The mean number of typical P expansum colonies that appeared per plate was 53 for external contamination of the flies and 24 for internal contamination The conidia of P expansum adhering to the various body parts of contaminated flies were first localized on these parts and then photographed under the light microscope after they have been correctly identified Overall results indicate the possibility of P expansum conidial transmission by D melanogaster adults into sound mature nectarine and pear fruit through their feeding and oviposition punctures Postharvest Biology and Technology Volume 40 Issue 2 May 2006 Pages 190-196 http:dxdoiorg101016jpostharvbio200601006 Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin applied alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Du Val larvae: Influence of temperature, relative humidity and type of commodityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Effectiveness-of-Metarhizium-anisopliae-Metschinkoff-Sorokin-applied-alone-or-in-combination-with-diatomaceous-earth-against-Tribolium-confusum-Du-Val-larvae-Influence-of-temperature-relative-humidity-and-type-of-commodityPublished ArticlesLaboratory experiments were carried out in order to assess the insecticidal effect of Metarhizium anisopliae Metschinkoff Sorokin Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes formulations against larvae of Tribolium confusum Du Val Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on flour and wheat M anisopliae was applied at three dose rates of 8106 8108 and 81010 conidiakg to either wheat or flour respectively Also the wheatflour was treated with the diatomaceous earth DE formulation SilicoSec Biofa Germany at two dose rates 02 and 05 gkg of wheat or flour either alone or in combination with M anisopliae with each fungal rate Mortality of T confusum larvae was assessed 7 days after exposure to the treated substrate The bioassays were conducted at three temperatures 20 25 and 30 C and two relative humidity rh levels 55 and 75 Larval mortality was notably varied among treatments as well among temperature and humidity levels For both fungus and DE the increase of temperature increased their effectiveness On the other hand the increase of rh significantly reduced larval mortality for both M anisopliae and SilicoSec Both substances either alone or in combination were more effective on wheat than on flour Also the addition of 05 g of SilicoSec in the fungal preparation especially at the highest dose rate increased larval mortality in comparison with the fungus alone or in combination with 02 g of SilicoSec The results of the present work suggest that under certain circumstances the effectiveness of M anisopliae against T confusum larvae can be benefitted by the presence of DE Crop Protection Volume 25 Issue 5 May 2006 Pages 418-425 http:dxdoiorg101016jcropro200507003A Study of Treatment Effect with Metarhizium Anisopliae and Four Types of Dusts on Wheat Grain Infestation with Red Flour Beetles (Tribolium Castaneum Herbs, Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/A-Study-of-Treatment-Effect-with-Metarhizium-Anisopliae-and-Four-Types-of-Dusts-on-Wheat-Grain-Infestation-with-Red-Flour-Beetles-Tribolium-Castaneum-Herbs-Coleoptera-TenebrionidaePublished ArticlesThe present study included treatments of stored wheat grains with four types of dusts alone or in combination with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae A ratio of 1:4 ww of the fungus conidia to the dust carrier respectively and a rate of application of 20 ww of the dust carrier alone or the dust carrier fungus conidia to wheat grains were used during the treatments Results obtained have shown that the treatments with combination of charcoal fungal conidia oven ash fungal conidia and chalk powder fungal conidia caused significant higher percentage of Tribolium castaneum-adult mortality 733 533 and 600 respectively compared to treatments with charcoal oven ash and chalk powder alone 133 267 and 133 respectively Significant reduction in the percentage of insect infestation rate on wheat grains was also obtained when treatments with the above-mentioned combinations were compared with the dust treatment alone The least significant percent of infestation rate was thus obtained with oven ash fungal conidia 05 followed by charcoal fungal conidia 12 then chalk powder fungal conidia 20 Moreover significant longer durations of T castaneum life-cycle were obtained after treatment with charcoal fungal conidia 547 days and chalk powder fungal conidia 600 days compared with treatments with charcoal and chalk powder alone 480 and 537 days respectively This demonstrates clearly the effect of treatment on retardation of the insect development by 6 days Further experiments under a wide range of temperature and relative humidity and on larger quantities of wheat grains are recommended to be carried out before applying the effective combinations of the fungus and dust carriers at a large scale for control of this insect Control of Alternaria Spot Disease on Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) Using Detached Fruits and Leaf-disk Assayhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Control-of-Alternaria-Spot-Disease-on-Loquat-Eriobotrya-japonica-Lindl-Using-Detached-Fruits-and-Leaf-disk-AssayPublished ArticlesTreatments with four types of new slightly toxic and non-residual fungicides and two preparations of Trichoderma harzianum were applied against Alternaria alternata causal organism of Alternaria leaf and fruit spot disease of loquat Preventive and curative effects of the above-mentioned treatments were bioassessed by measuring lesion diameter of A alternata and its sporulation density on detached loquat fruits and leaf discs Results indicated that preventive and curative effects of the treatment with difenoconazole Score and cyprodinilflodioxonil Switch applied at a rate of 035 VV and 020 WV respectively significantly reduced the lesion diameter of A alternata on treated fruits and leaf discs compared to the untreated control fruits and leaf discs Also application of the above-mentioned fungicides at the same rates completely inhibited the sporulation of A alternata at preventive and curative treatment with Switch and at curative treatment with Score on treated leaf discs compared to the untreated control organs Conidia of T harzianum strain Th2 formulated in invert emulsion and applied at a concentration of 13X108 conidiaml of the preparation significantly suppressed lesion diameter of A alternata and its sporulation density on treated fruits compared to treatment with conidial suspension of T harzianum in sterile distilled water and the control blank formulation of invert emulsion or sterile distilled water only These results should be confirmed under field conditions before large scale application An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 19 2005 Pages: 069-082Control of the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) by treatments with residual formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Control-of-the-lesser-grain-borer-Rhyzopertha-dominica-F-Coleoptera-Bostrichidae-by-treatments-with-residual-formulations-of-Metarhizium-anisopliae-Metschnikoff-Sorokin-Deuteromycotina-HyphomycetesPublished ArticlesTreatments with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae formulated in invert emulsion water-in-oil formulation or in wheat flour were applied to Rhyzopertha dominica adults infesting Cicer arietinum grains The application rates were 41105conidiacm2 of treated area using a concentration of 18107conidiaml of the invert emulsion and 82106conidiacm2 of treated area using a concentration of 65108conidiag of the wheat flour formulation Results have indicated significant mortality P005 when newly emerged R dominica adults were introduced and then treated with the invert emulsion and wheat flour formulations 867933 control treatment 100267 mortality When treated grains were left until the emergence of F1 adults there was also significant mortality P005 in both treatments 283600 control treatment 1783 mortality This indicates a residual effectiveness of the treatment with the two formulations against R dominica adults which extended to 2 months equivalent to the duration of the insect life-cycle at 232C and 755 rh Infestation rate of C arietinum grains by R dominica at 232C and 755 rh was significantly reduced in the treatments with the fungal conidia formulated in invert emulsion 07 or in wheat flour 10 when compared with the control treatment 190233 The preventive treatments significantly retarded R dominica development P005 by 812 days compared with the control treatment The infection with the fungus thus delayed adult emergence of R dominica by 812 days Overall results give promise for control of R dominica with M anisopliae mixed with wheat flour or introduced into invert emulsion Journal of Stored Products Research Volume 41 Issue 2 2005 Pages 221-229 Quantitative Determination of Chlorpyrifos and Penconazole Residues in Grapes Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometryhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Quantitative-Determination-of-Chlorpyrifos-and-Penconazole-Residues-in-Grapes-Using-Gas-ChromatographyMass-SpectrometryPublished ArticlesSamples of grape leaves and berries CV: Zeini were taken from grape-vine yards treated with chlorpyrifos Dursban? and penconazole Ofir? in order to determine their residues in these organs The effect of time after spraying and number of sprays on the residues of both pesticides was studied Gas chromatorgraphy mass spectrometry GCMS was used to determine the residue levels Results obtained have indicated the presence of both pesticides in the tested leaf samples but chlorpyrifos residues were detected in larger quantities than penconazole residues Also larger quantities of both pesticides were detected in the samples of berry cortex than in the samples of berry flesh However the residues of both pesticides in washing water of treated berries were lower than that in the cortex or in the flesh This may indicate the systemic action of esticides especially penconazole since washing the treated berries with water two weeks after application of the last spray did not remove the pesticides from berries Overall results have indicated that the determined quantities of both pesticides residues especially in the cortical tissues of treated berries following the sixth application of both pesticides were higher than the quantities reported by other authors in grape berries but they were generally less than the maximum residue limits MRLS defined by the residue legislations in other countriesCladosporium tenuissimum Cooke (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a causal organism of new disease on cucumber fruitshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Cladosporium-tenuissimum-Cooke-Deuteromycotina-Hyphomycetes-as-a-causal-organism-of-new-disease-on-cucumber-fruitsPublished ArticlesThe present research describes the symptoms of infection of Cladosporium tenuissimum on cucumber fruits This infection induced formation of numerous small circular swellings 33 mm diameter by 18 mm high on the surface of infected fruits rendering them unfit for marketing purposes No previous description of these symptoms on cucumber fruits has been reported Results obtained on susceptibility of the locally common-cultivated cucumber cultivars to the infection indicated significant differences in cultivar susceptibility Cultivar Nour was the most susceptible whereas Rocket and Ringo were the least susceptible Other tested cultivars were intermediate Treatment of the infection on cultivar Nour with fungicides indicated significant reduction in number of C tenuissimum swellings per cm2 of infected fruit surface in comparison with the untreated control Score difenoconazole applied at a rate of 035 vv and Merpan captan applied at a rate of 035 wv demonstrated as the most effective among tested fungicides with 83 to 86 reduction in the number of disease swellings relative to the control European Journal of Plant Pathology Volume 110 Number 10 December 2004Effect of treatment with Trichoderma harzianum Rifai formulated in invert emulsion on postharvest decay of apple blue moldhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Effect-of-treatment-with-Trichoderma-harzianum-Rifai-formulated-in-invert-emulsion-on-postharvest-decay-of-apple-blue-moldPublished ArticlesConidia of Trichoderma harzianum were formulated in invert emulsion water-in-oil type at a concentration of 60107 conidiaml of the formulation Treatments with conidia in the formulated emulsion and conidia in sterile distilled water were conducted to assess the effect on Penicillium expansum Link inoculated on apple fruits Comparisons were made with control treatments of an uninoculated emulsion and uninoculated distilled water The T harzianum-containing emulsion significantly P005 reduced the decay-lesion diameter compared to the T harzianum-containing water or the uninoculated emulsion or distilled water controls 175 257 340 and 342 mm respectively Significant differences P005 were also obtained between means of percent reduction in decay-lesion diameter relative to sterile distilled water control in the treatments with formulated and nonformulated conidia and control with uninoculated invert emulsion 488 248 and 06 respectively Mean time period needed for sporulation of P expansum was significantly P005 increased when the treatments with formulated T harzianum conidia were applied in comparison with the other types of treatments 142 versus 122 90 and 88 days respectively for the other treatments However no significant differences P005 were obtained in means of decay-lesion diameter or in means of time period needed for sporulation of P expansum in the control treatments uninoculated invert emulsion versus sterile distilled water This indicates that the effect of the formulation ingredients on decay-lesion development of P expansum or its sporulation was not significant A significant P005 long period of protection from P expansum infection up to 2 months was also obtained when unwounded apple fruits were dipped for 30-s period in formulated T harzianum conidia before being inoculated by P expansum compared to the wounded fruits This indicates the importance of the latter type of treatment in protecting apple fruits from blue mold infection for long time at postharvest stage without refrigeration International Journal of Food Microbiology Volume 96 Issue 3 15 November 2004 Pages 281-288 Control of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with various formulations of Metarhizium anisopliaehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Control-of-rice-weevil-Sitophilus-oryzae-L-Coleoptera-Curculionidae-with-various-formulations-of-Metarhizium-anisopliaePublished ArticlesFormulations of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia with oven ash chalk powder charcoal and wheat flour at a ratio of 1:4 WW were prepared Formulations containing charcoal and oven ash had a conidial viability half-life of 4143 months at 201C In comparison unformulated conidia held under the same conditions had a viability half-life of 09 month Bioassays carried out at 282C and 705 RH indicated that the treatments with charcoal and oven ash formulations at a rate of 20 or 28mgcm2 of treated area resulted in 733867 mortality of adult Sitophilus oryzae after 7 days when treatments were applied before or after pest infestations Mortality in F1 adults was 289475 when exposed upon emergence to the same formulations previously applied against their parents Treatments applied before pest infestation with charcoal or oven ash formulation reduced damage rates to wheat grains to 05 compared to the control 60 Development time of S oryzae was prolonged 48 days when the grains were treated before pest infestation with fungal formulations in charcoal or oven ash A synergistic effect between the fungus and the most effective dusts charcoal or oven ash for the after pest infestation treatments was obtained during bioassays for evaluation of S oryzae adult mortality Additional experiments are required to explain the mechanism of this synergism Crop Protection Volume 23 Issue 2 February 2004 Pages 103-108 الوضع الحالي للمكافحة ودرجة الإصابة بكل من نافقة أوراق الحمضيات‎ ‎والحشرات القشرية على أشجار الحمضيات في منطقة طولكرمhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/---------lrm-lrm-------Published Articlesتمَّ في هذا البحث، إجراء تقييم عام للوضع الحالي لبيارات الحمضيات في منطقة طولكرم، من حيث درجة إصابتها بكل من نافقة أوراق الحمضيات والحشرات القشرية، وفقا للاستبيان الذي تم إعداده لهذا الغرض، وتضمن عدة أسئلة تتعلق بالإصابة بهذين النوعين من الآفات الحشرية، وطرق المكافحة المستخدمة حاليا وقد تمت الإجابة عن الأسئلة الواردة في الاستبيان، عند زيارة المزارعين في بياراتهم، وتم بعد ذلك تفريغ وتحليل البيانات التي تم جمعها ودلت نتائج الاستبيان على أن ما نسبته 6ر63 - 7ر72 من المزارعين الذين شملتهم الدراسة، يستفيدون من خدمات المرشدين الزراعيين، ويلتزمون برش المبيدات والتراكيز الموصى بها، من قبل هؤلاء المرشدين في حالة مكافحة نافقة أوراق الحمضيات وما نسبته 1ر59 - 6ر63 في حالة مكافحة الحشرات القشرية أمّا نسبة المزارعين الذين يعتقدون بوجود جدوى اقتصادية للمكافحة، وبضرورة القيام بحملة وطنية شاملة للمكافحة، فقد كانت 9ر90 - 4ر95 بالنسبة للحشرات القشرية، و 4ر95 لنافقة أوراق الحمضيات وبلغ معدل نسبة الإصابة على أشجار الحمضيات في منطقة طولكرم 5ر30-5ر54 لكلا النوعين من الآفات وعلى كافة أصناف الحمضيات وأظهرت الدراسة أن أهم المبيدات التي يستعملها المزارعون في بياراتهم لمكافحة الإصابة بكلا النوعين من الآفات هي: نيرون، وسوبراسيد ويخلط المزارعون المبيد الأخير مـع زيت الفوليك، لمكافحة نافقة أوراق الحمضيات، أو مع نيرون لمكافحة الحشرات القشرية ويستخدم المزارعون كذلك زيت الفوليك لوحده لمكافحة الحشرات القشرية أما المبيدات الأخرى المستعملة ضد نافقة أوراق الحمضيات فهي: فيرتمك، وكونفدور وتشير النتائج إلى أن نسبة عالية من المزارعين الذين شملهم الاستبيان 60-70 كانوا يستفيدون من الخدمات الإرشادية الزراعية، ويلتزمون برش المبيدات والتراكيز الموصى بها لمكافحة هذين النوعين من الآفات، إلا أن درجة الإصابة بكلتا الآفتين ظلت مرتفعة 30-50، وقد يعود السبب في ذلك إلى عدم استخدام التركيز المثالي للمبيد، أو إلى عدم الفاعلية للمبيدات الموصى بها، أو إلى التوقيت غير المناسب للرش، أو عدد مراته، وهذا يستدعي مزيدا من البحث لاختبار فعالية المبيدات المستخدمة في مكافحة هذه الآفات، أو البحث عن مبيدات أخرى أكثر فاعلية كما تبين أن المزارعين الذين شملهم الاستبيان، لا يستخدمون وسائل مكافحة غير كيماوية كالوسائل البيولوجية وغيرها، والتي قد تكون مفيدة في تخفيف درجة الإصابة مجلة جامعة النجاح للأبحاث - العلوم الطبيعية أ ISSN: 1727-2114 المجلد 18 ، العدد 2 ، 2004 ، الصفحات: 267-280 Postharvest biological control of apple gray mold by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai formulated in an invert emulsionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Postharvest-biological-control-of-apple-gray-mold-by-Trichoderma-harzianum-Rifai-formulated-in-an-invert-emulsionPublished ArticlesAn invert emulsion water-in-oil formulation based on coconut and soybean oils provided the most stable emulsion layer 93 VV and lowest viscosity 27081cps suitable for a formulation of Trichoderma harzianum conidia Conidia remained viable for 36 months shelf-life with 50 reduction in viability half-life after 53 months at 201C compared with 27 and 07 months respectively for dry non-formulated conidia Stability and viscosity of the formulation remained constant during the time period of viability study Bio-assay tests on wounded apple fruit indicated the presence of significant preventive effect of formulated Trichoderma conidia against the causative organism of apple gray mold Botrytis cinerea The diameter of Botrytis lesions was significantly reduced P005 5 days after inoculation and treatment with formulated Trichoderma conidia Botrytis sporulation on the lesion surface was also inhibited 10 days after inoculation These results were confirmed under simulated natural conditions by spraying a Botrytis conidial suspension on microwounded apple fruit following treatment by dipping fruit Treatment of healthy non-wounded apple fruits resulted in protection from Botrytis infections for 2 months following inoculation and treatment Crop Protection Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2004 Pages 19-26 Production and testing of novel formulations of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Production-and-testing-of-novel-formulations-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-Metarhizium-anisopliae-Metschinkoff-Sorokin-Deuteromycotina-HyphomycetesPublished ArticlesThe conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were formulated in an invert emulsion water-in-oil formulation with a coconutsoybean oil preparation providing the most stable emulsion layer 93 and lowest viscosity 27cps The fungal conidia remained viable in the formulation for 308 months with a 50 reduction half-life in conidial viability after 46 months at 201C In comparison dry non-formulated conidia held under the same conditions were non-viable after 2 months with a half-life of 05 month The invert emulsion remained stable throughout the study Under laboratory conditions the fungus at a concentration of 5106conidiaml killed nymphs of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci within 3 days of treatment with fungal outgrowth and sporulation observed on the cadavers within 45 days Whitefly mortality ranged from 667 to 100 under laboratory conditions When tested under field conditions whitefly mortality ranged from 300 to 922 on eggplants The fungus at a concentration of 5106conidiaml also killed nymphs and adults of the red spidermite Tetranychus cinnabarinus within 34 days of treatment under laboratory conditions with fungal outgrowth and sporulation observed on the cadavers within 5 days Spidermite mortality ranged from 583 to 933 under laboratory conditions When tested in the field spidermite mortality ranged from 259 to 906 on eggplants For both pest species significantly higher levels of mortality were obtained when formulated conidia were compared to the non-formulated conidia or the control treatments whether tested under laboratory or field conditions When the formulation blank was applied as control treatment mortality was not significantly different from the distilled water-treated controls The fungus thus shows great potential for management of both pests and activity appears to be enhanced when applied in a coconutsoybean oil formulation Crop Protection Volume 22 Issue 2 March 2003 Pages 415-422 Symptomatology of Tobacco Whitefly and Red Spidermite Infection with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokinhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Symptomatology-of-Tobacco-Whitefly-and-Red-Spidermite-Infection-with-the-Entomopathogenic-Fungus-Metarhizium-Anisopliae-Metsch-SorokinPublished ArticlesThe present research aimed at describing the macroscopic and microscopic symptoms of infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci and red spidermite Tetranychus cinnabarinus For this conidial suspensions of the fungal strain Meta 1 were applied against larvae and pupae of B tabaci and adults and nymphs of T cinnabarinus infesting eggplants under laboratory and simulated field conditions Results obtained have indicated that infected larvae and pupae of B tabaci turned into black-greenish color due to the fungus-attack 3 days after treatment and incubation at 20?1oC and 100 RH using two types of incubation techniques Infected nymphs and adults of T cinnabarinus also turned into dark-brown color 3-4 days after treatment and incubation under similar conditions to B tabaci The same color change in both pests due to the fungus-infection under simulated field conditions 19-30oC and 90 RH was also obtained Dark-brown fungal outgrowth and sporulation was observed on the cadavers of treated individuals with the fungus in both pests 5 days after treatment and incubation under the above-mentioned conditions Microscopic examination of infected individuals of B tabaci or T cinnabarinus have indicated that typical mycelia and conidia of M anisopliae were observed on their surface Moreover dense mycelial growth of the fungus was also observed under higher microscopic magnifications in the hemocoel of attacked individuals of B tabaci or T cinnabarinus The latter observation was realized after a careful superficial sterilizaton of the infected individuals of both pests then mounting and clearing them in lactophenol before examination Overall results refer to the possibility of using the fungus in biocontrol of both pestsSubject Review: Application and Usage of Pesticides in Palestine: Current and Future Outlookhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Subject-Review-Application-and-Usage-of-Pesticides-in-Palestine-Current-and-Future-OutlookPublished Articles The present review paper was prepared due to the lack of reports or review articles which analyze and treat the problems resulting from the excessive use and application of pesticides in the Palestinian territories PT It stated and discussed firstly the current status of pesticides application and usage in the PT then exposed at the problems created by the overuse of pesticides in these territories and then offered the proper solution of these problems at the present time and in perspective Thus it provided with a number of basic elements which may improve the present and future application and usage of pesticides in the PT It also urged to follow the necessary measures in order to solve the problems of pesticides overuse and hence to protect both local environment and national crop products from pesticide pollution Moreover certain examples were cited in this paper on fruitful regional cooperation between neighbouring countries as a solution of some cases of hard pest control on certain crops Until present such cases are treated only with excessive amounts of pesticides but the proposed solution either reduces greatly the amount of applied pesticides for treating the pest or investigates non-pesticide control measure An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 17 Issue 1 2003 Pages: 089-098Alternaria Leaf Spot Disease on Cucumber: Susceptibility and Control ‎Using Leaf Disk Assayhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Alternaria-Leaf-Spot-Disease-on-Cucumber-Susceptibility-and-Control-lrmUsing-Leaf-Disk-AssayPublished ArticlesResults obtained in the present research using leaf disk assay indicated significant differences in susceptibility of tested cucumber cultivars to Alternaria cucumerina-infection Hasan cultivar was the most susceptible but Rocket cultivar was the least susceptible Assessment of treatment efficacy with fungicides and Trichoderma harzianum against the disease using leaf disk assay indicated the presence of significant differences between the treatments with 4 types of new low-residual fungicides or 2 forms of T harzianum and the control treatments with a blank formulation of invert emulsion or sterile distilled water Treatments with fungicides just before the disease inoculation demonstrated that Score and Switch completely inhibited appearance of the disease-lesion on treated cucumber leaf-discs when applied at a rate of 035 VV and 020 WV respectively Treatments with the same fungicides at the same application rates 24h after the disease inoculation also completely inhibited the disease-lesion appearance when Score was applied It suppressed the disease-lesion diameter to 25mm or reduced it by 835 relative to control when Switch was applied Moreover application of formulated conidia of T harzianum in invert emulsion at a concentration of 20X108 conidiaml significantly suppressed the disease-lesion diameter on treated cucumber leaf-discs Such application decreased the lesion diameter to 45 and 65mm or reduced it by 704 and 572 relative to control when used just before or 24h after the disease inoculation respectively It is thus concluded that the results obtained on susceptibility of cucumber cultivars to the disease infection and its control should be confirmed on whole plants under field conditions before being recommended to be applied by the farmers and extension agents An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 17 Issue 2 2003 Pages: 269-279Effect of Fungicides and Antagonistic Microorganisms on the Black Fruit Spot Disease on Persimmonhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Effect-of-Fungicides-and-Antagonistic-Microorganisms-on-the-Black-Fruit-Spot-Disease-on-PersimmonPublished ArticlesAlternaria alternata is the causative agent of black fruit spot disease on Persimmon This disease infects fruits in the field near the harvesting time but develops during the postharvest period causing fruit rot In this study suspensions of different strains of antagonistic microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were tested against the disease in addition to applying fungicidal treatments with new non-residual fungicides against the disease Artificial infections with the disease were made on harvested fruits and subsequently fungicides or antagonistic microorganisms were applied in the different experiments Preventive and curative effects of tested fungicides or antagonistic strains were evaluated according to the extent of supression of disease lesion diameter Results showed that significant differences between tested fungicides or antagonistic strains were obtained Consequently Difenoconazole and Cyprodinil Flodioxonil proved to be the most effective preventive fungicides against the disease This significant prevention was also provided by the antagonistic strain Trichoderma-Th1 of Trichoderma harzianum urn In addition the tested formulations of Metalaxyl Mancozeb Captan and Cyprodinil Flodioxonil had a significant curative effect against the disease This curative effect was also shown by the strains Trichoderma-Th1 and Bacillus-GA1 A control program of the disease based on the above results comprising chemical and biological means is discussed Such program should replace the current traditional fungicidal treatment since it is more effective and has no side-effects on the consumers or the local environmentPotential Biocontrol Agents on Nutsedgeshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Potential-Biocontrol-Agents-on-NutsedgesPublished ArticlesPurpIe and yellow nutsedges are agriculturally important weeds They have an adverse effect against a large number of cultivated crops under both protected and open field conditions In this research one phytophagous insect Bactra sp Tortricidae Lepidopterra and two phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria gloeosporioides were found to be naturally infecting these weeds After a successful rearing of the insect and isolation of the fungi certain studies on the efficacy of both insect and fungi against the purple nutsedge were conducted Detailed description of adult insect and its immature stages was provided for the first time Results obtained on mean duration of different immature stages of the insect were: 35 143 and 87 days for egg larval and pupal stages respectively Therefore duration of life cycle averaged 265 days at 20tlCo Longevity of adult insect was 123 days and femal fecundity was 728 eggs per female during the life span Biological effect of insect moth against the weed was shown by following the insect development inside the plan until reaching the rhizome and penetrating it Results obtained on efficacy assessement procedures indicated that the percent of plant weed mortality was 731 due to the insect attack 2569 and 3684 due to inoculation with culture discs and conidial suspension of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides respectively This mortality occured in the above cases after penetration of the bioagent in plant rhizome Infection of detach weed leaf pieces or rhizomes with three fungal strains of Alternaria alternata or with one fungal strain of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the following mean length of disease lesion: 81 66 56 and 158 mm respectively for the above strains Significant differences between these mean lengths were obtained Further studies especially under field conditions are recommended to be conducted to assure the efficacy of the insect and the fungal strains against the weed since their effectiveness under controlled conditions was clearly proved in this study An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 14 2000 Pages: 083-103Effect of Temperature on Life History of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Effect-of-Temperature-on-Life-History-of-Eretmocerus-mundus-Mercet-Hymenoptera-AphelinidaePublished ArticlesDirasat Agricultural Sciences Volume 23 No 3 1996Methods of Controlled Anthracnose Infection of Strawberryhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Methods-of-Controlled-Anthracnose-Infection-of-StrawberryPublished ArticlesGloeosporium sp the causal organism of anthracnose is becoming widespread in France In order to create new resistant varieties and to know better the biology of the fungus several methods of contamination were compared on entire plants or excised organs Results confirmed the susceptibility of berries They also demonstrated an infectivity of roots which is a new result They point out the interest of petiole contamination to obtain measurable attacksEffect of different host plants on population development of the sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2275/article/Effect-of-different-host-plants-on-population-development-of-the-sweetpotato-whitefly-Bemisia-tabaci-Genn-Homoptera-AleyrodidaePublished ArticlesDirasat Vol Xll 1985 No 6