An-Najah Blogs :: Ghaleb Mohammad Adwan An-Najah Blogs :: Ghaleb Mohammad Adwan en-us Sat, 06 Jun 2020 00:18:00 IDT Sat, 06 Jun 2020 00:18:00 IDT Three new species of cercariae from Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) snails in Al-Bathan fresh water body, Palestine ArticlesObjective: To investigate other new species of cercariae encountered in Melanopsis praemorsa M praemorsa snails collected from Palestine Methods: A total of 1 100 M praemorsa were collected from Al-Bathan water body Palestine from November 2010 to November 2011 Cercariae in M praemorsa were obtained by emerging and crushing methods Results: Other three new different species of cercariae have been identified from this snail These species were Xiphidiocercaria Cercaria melanopsi palestinia IV Microcercous Cercaria melanopsi palestinia V and Longifurcate cercaria Cercaria melanopsi palestinia VI The infection rate of M praemorsa with these three different cercariae was 422 Coinfection with Xiphidiocercariae and Longifurcate cercariae or Xiphidiocercariae and Microcercous cercariae has been noted and coinfection rate was 123 among the infected snails The highest cercarial infection rate was in June 643 No infected snails were found in September It was also noted that infected snails attained a larger size than uninfected ones and all infected snails had a size between 17-22 mm average 20 mm Conclusions: Our studies imply that there are potentially more new species of trematodes in this area than were found until now Due to the presence of infected M praemorsa and may be species of other snails water resources could be contaminated by the emerging new cercariae consequently attack the local people directly via the skin or are transferred to them by metacercariae ingestion More surveys are needed to identify the real prevalence of the trematodes both in human and animal hosts and also to determine the range of snail hosts of the parasite in enzootic areas of the diseaseAssessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans Articles Objective: To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans isolates Methods: The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package SPSS windows version 15 by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences LSD method A P value of 005 was considered significant Results: All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C albicans isolates The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as an active ingredients while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference P0001 against C albicans isolates compared to that toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products Conclusion: In the present study it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as an active ingredients is more effective in control of C albicans while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C albicans Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals with an interest in naturally-based products Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals Inhibitory Effect of Varthemia iphionoides Extract on the Contractility of Isolated Rabbit Ileum ArticlesVarthemia iphionoides is indigenous to Palestine where it is traditionally being used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders The aim of this paper was toprovide pharmacological validation to this medicinal use Water and ethanol extracts of Varthemia iphionoides were studied on isolated rabbit ileum for spasmolyticaction These extracts showed a reduction of the amplitude and the tone of spontaneous contraction in a concentration-dependent manner Apart from that waterextract of Varthemia iphionoides drastically diminished the increase of the contraction of the ileum caused by acetylcholine ACh concentration of 55X10-6MThis indicates that Varthemia iphionoides extract probably acts at least through muscarinic receptors blockadeEffect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans Articles Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium E elaterium fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus S aureus strains and Candida albicans C albicans strains or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains Methods: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of E elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S aureus MRSA methicillin sensitive S aureus MSSA and C albicans This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains Fractional inhibitory concentration index FIC between penicillin and ethanolic extract E elaterium fruits against these test strains were less than 05 Conclusions: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S aureus and C albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E elaterium extract in combination in treatment infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains A wider study is needed to identify the effective components the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients Larval Stages of Digenetic Trematodes of Melanopsis praemorsa Snails from Freshwater Bodies in Palestine Articles Abstract: Objective: To detect the species of larval trematodes cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine Methods: A total of Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies from October 2008 to November 2010 Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa were obtained by lighting and crushing methods The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope Results: Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body while snails from other water bodies were not infected These species were a microcercous cercaria xiphidiocercaria and a brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I C melanopsi palestinia II and C melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body with these cercariae was 57 while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 43 Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as on their development within the snail Conclusion: These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine: a 10-year retrospective study Articles Objective: The present study is aimed to asses the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Jenin Governorate Northern Palestine populations Methods: A retrospective laboratory analysis of stool specimens submitted for intestinal parasite examination analysis in Jenin Governmental Hospital Jenin Governorate Northern Palestine The records were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Jenin Governmental Hospital between January 2000 and December 2009 Results: Our retrospective study showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection during 10 years ranged from 32-415 There are at least 7 different parasites were encountered the most common pathogenic parasites identified were: Entamoeba histolytica 824-182 Enterobius vermicularis 156-289 The other parasites present were: Giardia lamblia Ascaris lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Taenia species and Ancylostoma duodenale Hookworms Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Jenin governorate Palestine It is necessary to develop effective prevention and control strategies including health education and improving environmental health Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Middle East 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates ArticlesAbstract: Objective: To study hemagglutinin genetic evolution of some Middle East ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates and compared them with prototype vaccine strain ACalifornia072009 H1N1 which is used as a vaccine strain in the Northern Hemisphere 2010-2011 Methods: Nucleotide andor amino acid sequences of HA gene of fifty-four of ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates were retrieved from GenBank Database by using Basic BLAST engine Phylogenetic trees were established for both nucleotide and amino acid sequences using the Muscle algorithm of the computer program CLC free workbench 561 JRE software Amino acids alignment was also done to compare between sequences HA1 domains of HA genes of ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates n=39 with amino acid sequence of prototype vaccine strain ACalifornia072009 H1N1 Results: Phylogenetic analysis of amino acids and nucleotides of the HA gene of the ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates confirmed their evolutionary position in cluster with prototype vaccine strain ACalifornia072009 H1N1 which is used as vaccine strain in the Northern Hemisphere 2010-2011 Antigenically the ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates are homogeneous and closely related to prototype vaccine Only a few amino acid substitutions in the HA among the Middle East 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates analyzed Conclusions: The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide a good protection against ME 2009 H1N1 pdm because it contains strains with H1 HA ACalifornia072009 H1N1-like strain Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains ArticlesObjective: To evaluate the possible in vitro interaction between ethanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria R coriaria seed Sacropoterium spinosum S spinosum seed Rosa damascena R damascene flower and certain known antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl penicillin G cephalexin sulfadimethoxine as sodium and enrofloxacin This synergy study was carried out against 3 clinical strains of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa P aeruginosa Methods: Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using microdilution method Results: The results of this study showed that there is a decrease in the MIC in case of combination of ethanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents The most interesting result was that the combination between R coriaria and these antibiotics showed a high decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and a strong bactericidal activity against these strains Conclusions: These results may indicate that combinations between R coriaria extract and these antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance P aeruginosa which may due to that R coriaria extract contain natural inhibitors working by different mechanisms or inhibiting efflux pumps Now we have experiments underway leading to the identification of the active molecules present in R coriaria Further in vivo experiments are needed to confirm pseudomonal protectionHIGHLY PATHOGENIC INFLUENZA A VIRUS (H5N1) ArticlesSUMMARY: Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 previously known to infect only birds was also found to infect human causing disease and death Continuous outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A resulted in an urgent effort to improve treatments vaccines and diagnosis to lower the threat of an influenza pandemicControl measures and continuous surveillance aimed at reducing exposure of human to potential H5N1-infected poultry Pandemic human influenza viruses have been emerging for many centuries thrice only in last century These pandemics were caused by the most common subtypes of circulating viruses in the community at that time The influenza virus has segmented genome which undergoes continuous mutations and genetic reassortmentsPhylogenetic analyses of the H5N1 viruses isolated from humans showed that these viruses were identical to those circulating in poultry Any genetic change in H5N1 enabling human to human transmission may lead to a pandemic of human influenzaEmergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in North of Palestine ArticlesObjective: This study was conducted to update the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S aureus MRSA isolates among human clinical S aureus isolates recovered from Northern Palestine to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin-Resistant S aureus VRSA and vancomycin- intermediate resistant S aureus strains VISA and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of these clinical isolates Methods: The in-vitro activities of 11 antibiotics against 204 non-duplicate S aureus isolates from clinical samples in North of Palestine were determined by the disk-diffusion method These samples were isolated between June 2006 and December 2007 The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of vancomycin for 115 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains was carried out using the agar dilution method Results: One hundred and fifteen 564 of these isolates were MRSA and according to their antibiotic profile these are multidrug resistant resistant to three or more non--lactam antibiotics Ninety nine 436 isolates were methicillin sensitive S aureus MSSA forty four of MSSA isolates 444 were multidrug resistant while forty five 456 were non multidrug resistant Our results showed that the most common resistance 956 was to penicillin Two strains of MRSA have shown to be vancomycin- intermediate resistant had MIC 4 and 8 gml and these vancomycin- intermediate resistant S aureus strains VISA are resistant to all antibiotics tested Conclusion: According to our information this is the first study report about VISA in Palestine Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens ArticlesAbstract Objective: This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between water extracts of Psidium guajava Rosmarinus officinalis Salvia fruticosa Majorana syriaca Ocimum basilucum Syzygium aromaticum Laurus nobilis and Rosa damascena alone and then synergy testing of these extracts with known antimicrobial agents including oxytetracycline HCl gentamicin sulfate penicillin G cephalexin and enrofloxacin This study was conducted against five S aureus isolates; one is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and 4 Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus MSSA Methods: Evaluation of the interaction between plant extracts and different antimicrobial agents has been done using well-diffusion and microdilution methods Results: The results of the conducted experiments using well-diffusion method demonstrate that these plants showed in vitro interactions between antimicrobial agents and plant extracts were additive while using microdilution method showed synergistic effects with significant reduction in the MICs of the test antibiotics against these strains of S aureus This change in MIC was noticed in all plant extracts including these plants showed weak antibacterial activity by well diffusion method Synergism effect was occurred in both sensitive and resistant strains but the magnitude of minimum fold reduction of inhibitory concentration in resistant strains especially MRSA strain was higher than the sensitive strains Coclusion: This study probably suggests the possibility of concurrent use of these antimicrobial drugs and plant extracts in combination in treating infections caused by S aureus strains or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics The subtypes of HIV type 1 in Greece. ArticlesNo AbstractMolecular Epidemiology of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in Northern Palestine ArticlesAbstractEighty isolates of Escherichia coli were collected in Northern Palestine throughout the 1996 to 2000 period from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections UTIs Resistance rates were ampicillin 65; co-trimoxazole 55; cefuroxime 10; cefotaxime 75; ceftazidime 25; ciprofloxacin 125; gentamicin 625 and amikacin 125 No imipenem-resistant isolates were identified To determine whether this was due to intra-hospital transmission of resistant strains clonal structure of 10 multiple-resistant isolates was examined by genomic DNA fingerprinting by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic concensus-polymerase chain reaction ERICPCR and all were clonally distinct Thus these strains are likely resistant due to convergent acquisition of resistance determinants by genetically unrelated uropathogenic strains rather than epidemic spread of resistant isolatesTyping of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Ribosome Spacer and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction ArticlesAbstract: Thirty-five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA clinical isolates were collected from 3 hospitals in the northern and southern parts of Palestine between February and May 1998 These isolates were typed by ribosome spacer PCR RSPCR and arbitrarily primed PCR AP-PCR RS-PCR generated 9 different genotypes The use of APPCR provided a high resolution typing method and allowed us to define 11 different clusters Three major clusters however based on the combination of both typing methods spread throughout the neonatal and intensive care units of Rafidya Hospital during the entire periodNosocomial Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylcoccus aureus in Palestine ArticlesABSTRACTThis report presents the prevalence of Palestinian isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in nosocomial infections and their antibiotic resistant pattern A total of 321 clinical isolates of S aureus were identified from different patients The prevalence of methicillin resistance among S aureus isolates was 87 28 isolates Resistance rates of MRSA to other antibiotics were as follows: 821 resistant to erythromycin 679 to clindamycin 643 to gentamicin and 321 to ciprofloxacin No co-trimoxazole- and vancomycin-resistant isolates were identified in this study The proportion of methicillin resistance was highest among S aureus isolates associated with upper respiratory specimens 428; the proportion of methicillin resistance was 393 among skin ulcer isolates 107 among urinary tract infection isolates and lowest among isolates associated with blood and prostate discharge 36 eachPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MARKERS AMONG HIGH RISK GROUPS IN PALESTINE ArticlesSUMMARY: Four hundred and twenty one sera samples collected during 1995 to 1997 from subjects at high-risk for HBV infections were tested for the presence of HBV markers The subjects included kidney transplants n=109 hemodialyzed patients n=76 non-vaccinated healthcare workers n=52 and blood transfusion dependent patients n=80 Blood transfusion dependent patients include 60 thalassemic 6 hemophilic and 14 sickle cell anemia patients HBsAg prevalence rates of 294 17 225 and 96 were observed among kidney transplant hemodialysis blood transfusion dependent patients and non-vaccinated healthcare workers respectively HBeAg prevalence rates among HBsAg positive subjects of the previous groups were 438 769 389 and 00 respectively Our study indicates that 769 of HBsAg positive hemodialysis patients and 438 of HBsAg positive kidney transplant patients are highly contagious and constitute a high risk factor for the spreading of this infection The prevalence rates of anti-HBc previous infection rates of 569 500 379 and 173 were observed among kidney transplant hemodialysis blood dependent patients and non-vaccinated healthcare workers respectivelyThese results show that HBsAg in these high risk groups is high and vaccination against HBV of these groups is recommendedHepatitis B surface antibody response of household contacts of hepatitis B virus carriers in Palestine ArticlesABSTRACT To evaluate the effectiveness of hepatitis B virus HBV vaccination of household contacts of HBV carriers in Tulkarm district Palestine quantitative hepatitis B surface anti-HBs antibody response in 161 household contacts was measured after vaccination A seroprotective anti-HBs response titre 10 IUL was elicited in all vaccinated subjects Of these 25 had titres of 1099 IUL 615 100999 IUL and 360 1000 IUL The number of vaccination doses had no effect on the achievement of seroprotection HBV infection was demonstrated in 13 cases and their anti-HBV titres were in the range 25350 IULHIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 and CCR2 mutations among Greeks ArticlesAbstractThe frequency of CCR5 and CCR2 alleles in human immunodeficiency virus HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations of Northern Greece was investigated The frequency of the CCR5v32 allele among the HIV-negative subjects was 0052 while it was approximately twofold lower among the seropositives suggesting that the heterozygous genotype confers a partial resistance to the HIV infection No significant difference in CCR2 allele frequency between the two groups was observed Federation of European MicrobiologicalHIV Type 1 Sequences with GGC Substitution in Injecting Drug Users in Greece ArticlesNO AbstractGenetic heterogeneity of HIV-1 in Greece ArticlesABSTRACT The aim of this study was to detect and determine the genetic variation of HIV-1 in Greece and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships and transmission dynamics of identified variants Eighty-six blood samples from HIV-1 seroconverted patients of different risk groups were collected from the AIDS clinic AHEPA Hospital Thessaloniki Greece Retroviral DNA was extracted from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells HIV-1 DNA sequences encoding a 500-bp fragment of the gp120 C2-C3 region were amplified from each study subject and they were genetically subtyped by heteroduplex mobility assay and DNA sequencing Genetic distances and phylogenetic relationships of DNA sequences were estimated using PHYLIP software Our results revealed that 82 out of 86 953 subjects carried subtype B sequences while four 47 carried subtype A sequences Subtype A in Greek individuals not having traveled abroad was documented An average of intrasubtype B genetic divergence of 15 was noted Our findings demonstrate the presence of at least two genetic subtypes of HIV-1 in northern Greece subtype B and subtype A The predominant subtype is subtype B which was transmitted into Greece by multiple sources Our observations lend support to the argument that the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes is determined by founder effects or other processes rather than any tropism for particular cell types or mode of transmissionIN VITRO ACTIVITY OF CERTAIN DRUGS IN COMBINATION WITH PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTIONS ArticlesABSTRACTObjectives: This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between ethanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria seed Psidium guajava Leaf Lawsonia inermis Leaf and Sacropoterium spinosum seed and antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl enrofloxacin gentamicin sulphate and sulfadimethoxine against four clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSAMethodology: Evaluation of the interaction between ethanolic extracts and different antimicrobial agents has been done using well-diffusion method Results: It showed that ethanolic extracts increase the inhibition zones of oxytetracycline HClgentamicin sulphate and sulfadimethoxine while combinations between these plant extractsand enrofloxacin decrease inhibition zoneConclusion: This study probably suggests the possibility of concurrent use of these antimicrobial drugs and plant extracts in combination in treating infections caused by S aureus strains or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibioticsEfficacy of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Some Palestinian Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity ArticlesAbstract: Nine medicinal plants growing in Palestine were screened in vitro for potential antibacterial activity against 6 bacterial strains by well diffusion and micro-dilution techniques Both aqueous and organic solvents were used The dried extracts of Sacropoterium spinosum Rosaceae seed Ruta chalepensis L Rutaceae leaf Cassia senna Ligumenosa leaf Lawsonia inermis Lythraceae leaf Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Leaf Carataegus azerullus Rosaceae Leaf Ranunclus asiaticusRanunculaceae Flowers Calendula officinalis Composita Flowersand Salvia syriaca Labiatae leaf were screened The bacterial strains tested were; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA; three strains 1 2 3 multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia The average diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 30 mm and 11 to 28 mm for aqueous and ethanol extract respectively Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA was the most inhibited microorganism Sacropoterium spinosum extract was the most active against Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa The MIC value of ethanol extract was 0781 mgml against MRSA while 0390 mgml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa The combination effect of ethanol extracts of Sacropoterium spinosum with Lawsonia Inermis on bacterial species tested exhibited a higher effect than that of any individual extractSuch results lead to an interesting promise for further investigation to design potentially active antibacterial augmentative agents of natural sourcesANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF RHUS CORIARIA. L EXTRACTS GROWING IN PALESTINE ArticlesAbstract: Disk diffusion and micro-dilution techniques were used to determine the antibacterial activity of water ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria ripe berries against five clinical bacterial strains Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 EHEC Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633 was used as a reference strain The zone of inhibition varies depending on bacterial species and type of extract The average diameter of inhibition zones ranges from 0 to 19 mm 15 to 25 mm and 15 to 22 mmfor water ethanolic and methanolic extract respectively The MIC value of ethanolic extract was 125 mgml against MRSA EHEC P aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris while 0156 mgml against B subtilis In general these results showed that the antibacterial activity of R coriaria ripe berries extracts was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negativeAntibacterial Effects of Nutraceutical Plants Growing in Palestine on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ArticlesAbstract: The antibacterial effects of single and combined plant extracts of water ethanol and methanol for two nutraceuticals utilized in Palestine were studied against multiple drug resistances Pseudomonas aeruginosa using well diffusion method These plants are Rhus coriaria and Thymus vulgaris Combinations of these extracts showed an additive action against this pathogenAntibacterial Activity of Four Plant Extracts Used in Palestine in Folkloric Medicine against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ArticlesAbstract: Ethanolic and hot water extracts from 4 different plant species used in Palestine in popular medicine for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origin were evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Both water and ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia Melissa officinalis and Rosa damascena were effective on MRSA The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC values of the ethanolic extract of M longifolia and M officinalis were in the range of 3125 to 1250 mgml and 1250 to 2500 mgml respectively The ethanolic extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of R damascena MIC 0395 to 0780 mgml and MBC 1563 to 3125 mgml The combination of ethanolic extracts of the plants studied showed synergistic antibacterial activity against MRSA strainsAntibacterial Activities of Some Plant Extracts Utilized in Popular Medicine in Palestine ArticlesAbstract: The antibacterial activities of hot water methanol and ethanol extracts of 5 plant extracts utilized in Palestine in popular medicine were studied The dried extracts of Syzyium aromaticum Myrtaceae seed Cinnamomum cassia Lauraceae cassia bark Chinese cinnamon bark Salvia officinalis Lamiaceaea leaf Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceaea leaf and Rosmarinus officinalis Labiatae leaf were tested in vitro against 4 bacterial species by disk diffusion and micro-dilution The patterns of inhibition varied with the plant extract the solvent used for extraction and the organism tested Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 were the most inhibited microorganisms S aromaticum extract was the most active against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 EHEC The combinations of ethanolic extracts of S officinalis with R officinalis and of R officinalis with T vulgaris on bacterial species tested exhibited a higher effect than that of any individual extract Results of this kind herald the interesting promise of designing a potentially active antibacterial synergized agent of plant originEnterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Raw Milk in the North of Palestine ArticlesAbstract: Enterotoxin genes sea-see in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from milk of clinically healthy sheep and cows in the north of Palestine were determined using a polymerase chain reaction PCR Thirty-seven 37 out of 100 S aureus isolates were toxin gene positive Four strains 108 were sea-positive 20 541 were seb-positive 4 108 were sec-positive 6 162 were sed-positive and 3 81 were see-positive None of these enterotoxigenic isolates carried more than one toxin gene This study indicates that the presence of enterotoxigenic S aureus in raw milk can contribute to the sources of staphylococcal food poisoning in PalestineToxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Northern Palestine ArticlesAbstract - A total of 68 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different human clinical samples in the North of Palestine were examined to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin SE genes A sea B seb C sec D sed and see Of the total isolates examined 412 2868 were enterotoxigenic S aureus Twelve strains 429 of enterotoxigenic S aureus harbored seagene ten strains 357 were carried see- gene six strains 214 were positive for sec-gene None of these enterotoxigenic S aureus isolates harbored more than one of toxin genes The presence of these toxin genes and other genes not be detected here might play a role in process of pathogenesis of S aureus disease other than food poisoning but this cannot be substantiated by the results of the present studyANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN THE NORTH OF PALESTINE ArticlesAbstract: The antimicrobial resistance to 10 antibiotics was determined in 132 staphylococcal isolates These representing Staphylococcus aureus n=66 and Staphylococcus epidermidis n=66 All isolates were from milk samples obtained from subclinical mastitis from Awassi ewes local goats and Fresian cows Results indicated that among all the antimicrobial agents tested the highest resistance of staphylococcal isolates was to ampicillin The frequency of resistance to ampicillin was 758 and 667 against S aureus and S epidermidis isolates respectively Resistance to amikacin cefepime vancomycin tobramycin or chloramphenicol was rare None of staphylococcal isolates was susceptible to all tested antibiotics Resistance to at least 3 drugs was found in 35 53 and 28 424 of S aureus and S epidermidis isolates respectivelyEnterotoxigenecity of S. Aureus Isolates Recovered from Chronic Urogenital Tract Infection in North Palestine ArticlesABSTRACTObjectives: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with diseases in a variety of hosts including humans It produces several toxins and virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential such as staphylococcal enterotoxins SEs This study was conducted to determine enterotoxigenicity of S aureus associated with chronic urogenital tract infection by detecting enterotoxin genesSetting: This study was done in The Microbiology laboratory An-Najah N University PalestineMethodology: A total of 90 S aureus isolates recovered from clinical samples from patients suffering from chronic urogenital tract infection in the North of Palestine were used to detect the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea seb sec sed and see by polymerase chain reaction PCR assayResults: Out of 90 S aureus isolates tested it was found that 57 633 of these isolatesharboured one or more enterotoxin genes Up to 789 of the enterotoxigenic isolates possessed one SE gene The majority of these enterotoxigenic strains 614 isolated from both semen and urine samples harbored sec gene either alone or in combination with other genes Also the prevalence of genes in combination was significantly more common in S aureus isolates derived from urine 933 273 as compared to those derived from semen 324 125Conclusions: The role of enterotoxin genes in the pathogenesis of urogenital tract infection is still unknown However it is evident that urogenital infection can be caused by S aureus trains which lack these genes Other newly detected genes may play a role in pathogenesisSwine Influenza A viruse (H1N1) PostsNo abstract