An-Najah Blogs :: Najeh S. Tamim http://blogs.najah.edu/author/najeh-tamim An-Najah Blogs :: Najeh S. Tamim en-us Tue, 27 Oct 2020 14:53:17 IST Tue, 27 Oct 2020 14:53:17 IST webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu Surveying for Engineers, Second Editionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/Surveying-for-EngineersPublished Articles This book aims to provide the reader with a concise modern book on surveying principles techniques and equipment Many books around the world have been written which deal with the subject of surveying; however two main factors have given me the motivation to add another book to the library First the need to re-present the material in a way that copes better with the recent developments in surveying instrumentation computer technology and surveying practice As an academic and a licensed surveyor with more than six years of practical field experience I included a description of several easy and some new techniques for performing surveying operations that I did not see in other surveying books example: layout of transition-circular-transition curves in section 9225 Second the realized need to provide the surveying and engineering students at the Palestinian and Arabic universities with an accessible inexpensive surveying book written in the English language given that the teaching language in engineering in most of these institutions is still English Students especially in Palestine are not capable of supporting and buying an imported expensive book due to the difficult economic situation Moreover this locally written book is more oriented towards the practice and application of the surveying profession laws and units of measurement in these countries The subject material of this book is divided into thirteen chapters Chapter one gives an introduction to surveying and explains its importance to people It also discusses the historical connection between surveying and civil engineering figure of the earth units of measurement scales of surveys as well as the basic geometric principles of traditional surveying Due to the harmful nature of measurement errors and the dangerous effects that they might have on the results it is very important that the reader learn about them so that these errors might be avoided corrected or minimized Therefore this subject is dealt with early in the book in Chapter 2 Consequently the reader is made aware of the different types of measurement errors that might occur in the measurements that are explained afterwards Chapters three four five and six discuss the different types of ground surveying instruments and techniques starting with the basic use of the chain going through the use of tapes levels and theodolites and ending with the use of the sophisticated total stations as well as their applications in making planimetric and topographic maps Chapter seven deals with coordinate geometry and traverse surveying It describes the different techniques and procedures used to calculate the position coordinates of points from measurements done using theodolites and electronic distance measuring equipment as well as other basic surveying instruments Chapter eight explains the most commonly used methods for area and volume calculation both computational techniques and mechanical ones using the planimeter Chapter nine deals with route surveying This includes the planning design and layout of both vertical and horizontal curves circular and transition Chapter ten discusses the subject of horizontal control surveys and methods used to provide and establish horizontal control points Chapter eleven gives an introduction to photogrammetry and its importance in topographic mapping as an alternative way of surveying And finally this second edition has an additional two chapters: global positioning systems GPS Chapter 12 and geographic information systems GIS Chapter 13 which are considered very hot subjects and advancements in the area of Geomatics GPS deals with position measurement and mapping using satellite technology while GIS deals with the computerized input manipulation analysis and presentation of spatial data In addition to the two new chapters 12 13 to this second edition of the book several major revisions have been made These include fixing typing mistakes rephrasing many sections to become simpler and easier to read and understand and adding new solved examples illustrating figures and pictures as well as adding new problems at the end of most of the chapters The word civil has been dropped from the previous title of the book given that it is suitable for all engineers who need to deal with surveying at some stage and not only civil engineers As a textbook and from the authors perspective and teaching experience this book is recommended to be taught in two undergraduate level courses The first course includes chapters one through eight while the second course includes the remaining five chapters I specifically tried to make this book as concise and easy to read and understand as possible I hope that it will be useful to the readers and certainly welcome any comments that will help improve it in the futureSurveying for Civil Engineers, First Editionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/Surveying-for-Civil-Engineers-First-EditionPublished Articles This book aims to provide the reader with a concise modern book on surveying principles techniques and equipment Many books around the world have been written which deal with the subject of surveying; however two main factors have given me the motivation to add another book to the library First the need to re-present the material in a way that copes better with the recent developments in surveying instrumentation and computer technology In addition new techniques which do not exist in the previous books have been developed and presented in this book Secondly the need to provide the surveying and civil engineering students at the Palestinian universities mainly An-Najah National University as well as the surveyors and engineers with an accessible inexpensive surveying book which is more oriented towards the surveying problems and practices in Palestineأشكال قطع الأراضي في فلسطين ومعوقات ذلك على استخداماتهاhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/articlePublished Articlesملخص: المتتبع والمتبصر لأشكال قطع الأراضي في فلسطين سواء المخصصة منها للأغراض العمرانية أو الزراعية أو غيرهما من الاستخدامات، يلاحظ أن هذه القطع تأخذ في معظمها أشكالاً غير منتظمة تحد بشكل كبير من قابليتها للاستخدامات المختلفة في وقت يتزايد فيه الطلب على الأرض، وتتعاظم أهميتها هناك حاجة ملحة لإعادة النظر في تقسيمات هذه الأراضي بحيث يتم سن تشريعات وقوانين تلزم أو تشجع أصحابها على تصحيح أشكالها ما أمكن، كأن يتم دمج شريطين متجاورين من الأرض مثلاً، وإعادة تقسيمها إلى بديلين أكثر انتظاماً من الناحية الهندسية، مما يسهم في تحسين إمكانية استخدامهما هذا البحث سوف يلقي الضوء على هذه الأشكال وسبب ظهورها، ويقترح طرائق تساعد في تعديلها أو التغلب عليهاA Cartographic Model for the Evaluation of Health Status in Less Developed Countrieshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/A-Cartographic-Model-for-the-Evaluation-of-Health-Status-in-Less-Developed-CountriesPublished ArticlesAbstract: With the advent of digital computer mapping facilities and Geographic Information Systems GIS came new methods of data acquisition storage retrieval analysis and presentation GIS together with cartographic modeling techniques helps modelers to address complex environmental and socio-economic issues and analyze the results in an efficient and effective manner This will in turn provide decision-makers with concrete information regarding the allocation of areas in need of development The health status in any community is a major indicator of the well being of people This paper will specifically outline a cartographic model for the analysis and evaluation of health conditions using GIS Such a model if implemented would provide planners and developers with information about resource allocation and identification of new health service sites A Historical Review of the Land Tenure and Registration System in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/A-Historical-Review-of-the-Land-Tenure-and-Registration-System-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesABSTRACT Due to its strategic location Palestine has played a significant role in world politics These politics in turn have been major influencing factors in the culture and history of Palestine The land in Palestine has been and still is the central issue in the Palestinian - Israeli conflict; each claiming sovereignty over it This paper will briefly outline the evolution of the land tenure and registration system in Palestine from the early days of Islam up to the present A future methodology that may improve the current system will be proposed at the end of the paper ملخص نظرا لموقعها الاستراتيجي، فقد لعبت فلسطين دورا هاما في السياسة العالمية، وهذه السياسة كانت بدورها عاملا مؤثرا في تشكيل حضارة وتاريخ هذا البلد على وجه الخصوص، فأن الأرض في فلسطين كانت وما زالت تشكل محور الصراع الفلسطيني-الأسرائيلي، حيث أن كلا الطرفين يدعي أحقية الملكية لهذه الأرض هذا البحث سوف يلقي الضوء على تطور نظام ملكية وتسجيل الأراضي في فلسطين منذ العصر الاسلامي الأول وحتى يومنا هذا، علاوة على اقتراح استراتيجية لتحسين الوضع الحالي عند تحقيق الأستقلال The Role of GIS in Environmental Applicationshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/The-Role-of-GIS-in-Environmental-ApplicationsPublished ArticlesAbstract: The rapid technological advances and the need for better means for the storage and analysis of geographic data have expedited the development of geographic information systems GIS These systems differ from other information systems and computer programs by their analytical capabilities They can store and establish links between both textual and spatial data and provide answers for what if questions which are difficult to answer using traditional means Moreover GIS systems can derive information which is not directly stored in the data base All these merits of GIS systems make them an ideal tool to be used by surveyors civil engineers geographers planners environmentalists etc This paper will give an overview of what GIS systems are and give some examples of their use for environmental protection and planning as well as solving existing environmental problemsA Methodology to Create a Digital Cadastral Overlay Through Upgrading Digitized Cadastral Datahttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/A-Methodology-to-Create-a-Digital-Cadastral-Overlay-Through-Upgrading-Digitized-Cadastral-DataPublished ArticlesAbstract: Several approaches exist for the creation of a digital cadastral overlay These range from the simple digitization of existing paper property ownership maps to the extensive field resurvey of all cadastral parcels While the digitizing approach is relatively inexpensive and can be implemented in a short time period it does not provide sufficient accuracy to satisfy all land information users due to the accuracy limitations of these paper maps On the other hand even though the resurvey approach achieves high accuracy it requires high up-front finances and takes a long time to implement There is consequently a need for another approach to building the cadastral overlay which gives greater weight to the efficiency and cost factors at least in the initial phase of implementation This approach should start with coordinates digitized from existing paper ownership maps and upgrade their accuracy incrementally through least-squares adjustment techniques using geometric constraints as well as accurate survey data as they become available These constraints include parcel areas street widths continuity of lines and curves known azimuths and angles particularly those which are multiples of 90 in addition to others and will be treated as stochastic constraints to take into account the deviation of the real situation from the ideal This article outlines the details of such an incremental approach which is fully explained in Tamim 1992 and reports on some of the encouraging results which have been achieved If integrated with existing Geographic Information Systems GIS this approach should significantly enhance the capabilities of these systems particularly in the area of land records modernizationUpgrading boundary information obtained from digitized tax maps for the purpose of creating a digital cadastral overlayhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/Upgrading-boundary-information-obtained-from-digitized-tax-maps-for-the-purpose-of-creating-a-digital-cadastral-overlayPublished ArticlesAbstract: Several approaches exist for the creation of a digital cadastral overlay These range from the simple digitization of the widely available tax maps to the extensive field re-survey of all cadastral parcels While the first approach is relatively inexpensive and can be implemented in a short time period it does not provide sufficient accuracy to satisfy all land information users due to the accuracy limitations of existing tax maps On the other hand even though the second approach achieves high accuracy it requires high up-front finances and takes a long time to implement There is consequently a need for another approach for building the cadastral overlay which will be relatively inexpensive implementable over a short period of time and meet the accuracy requirements of the land information users This approach should start with the coordinates digitized from tax maps and upgrade their accuracy incrementally through adjustment computation techniques using stochastic geometric constraints as well as accurate survey data which will become available over time This paper describes such an incremental approach and reports on some of the initial resultsStatus of Cadastral Mapping in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and its Effect on Building a Digital Cadastral Databasehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/najeh-tamim/article/Status-of-Cadastral-Mapping-in-the-Occupied-Palestinian-Territories-and-its-Effect-on-Building-a-Digital-Cadastral-DatabaseGeneral PostsAbstract: Due to the political complications that the occupied Palestinian lands have suffered over time mainly in the past century the status of cadastral mapping in the West Bank and Gaza as all other facets of life has been greatly affected and is now still in a rudimentary situation This in turn has hindered most activities concerned with the management planning development and effective use of land This paper will shed light on the historical development of cadastral mapping in the West Bank and Gaza indicate existing problems and suggest a methodology to complete the survey maps and build a digital cadastral database