An-Najah Blogs :: msashtayehprof An-Najah Blogs :: msashtayehprof en-us Sun, 24 Sep 2017 21:29:33 IST Sun, 24 Sep 2017 21:29:33 IST Management of healthcare waste in circumstances of limited resources: a case study in the hospitals of Nablus city, Palestine ArticlesThe objectives of this study were the assessment of healthcare waste management and the characterization of healthcare waste material generated in the hospitals in Nablus city Palestine and furthermore to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B among the cleaning personnel working in these hospitals The medical waste generation rate in kg per bed per day was between 059 and 093 kg bed 1 day1 The waste generation rate in the healthcare facilities of Nablus city hospitals was similar to some other developing countries; however the percentage of medical wastes in the total waste stream was comparatively high The density of medical waste at the four hospitals studied ranged between 1449 and 1884 kg m 3 with a mean value of 1667 kg m3 The waste segregation and handling practices were very poor Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave integrated with a shredder should be evaluated and implemented The system of healthcare waste management in Nablus city is in need of immediate improvement and attention Formulating rules and guidelines for medical waste and developing strategies for overcoming the obstacles related to waste management should be considered as an urgent matter Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study ArticlesBackgroundA comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority PA northern West Bank six of which were located in Nablus two in Jenin two in Salfit three in Qalqilia and two in Tulkarm These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants MethodsData on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity and relative importance of each species Results and discussionThe study recorded 100 wild edible plant species seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families The most significant species include Majorana syriaca Foeniculum vulgare Malvasylvestris Salvia fruticosa Cyclamen persicum Micromeria fruticosa Arum palaestinum Trigonella foenum-graecum Gundelia tournefortii and Matricaria aurea All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values mCI were cited in all five areas Moreover most were important in every region A common cultural background may explain these similarities One taxon Majoranasyriaca in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed CI values as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas Qalqilia and Salfit were generally higher than for the same species in other areas This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas ConclusionGathering processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas About 26 26100 of the recorded wild botanicals including the most quoted and with highest mCI values are currently gathered and utilized in all the areas demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Palestinian regions The habit of using wild edible plants is still alive in the PA but is disappearing Therefore the recording preserving and infusing of this knowledge to future generations is pressing and fundamental J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2008; 4: 13 http:wwwpubmedcentralnihgovarticlerenderfcgi?artid=2396604Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani by Indigenous Trichoderma spp. Isolates from Palestine ArticlesThe effect of indigenous Trichoderma isolates against the soil-borne phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani was investigated in dual culture and bioassay on bean plants Ap- plication of the bioagent isolates as a conidial suspension 3107 greatly reduced the disease index of bean plants caused by R solani in different rates and the most effective Trichoderma harzianum isolate Jn14 reduced the disease by 65 In dual culture the T harzianum Jn14 overgrew the pathogen R solani in an average of 1675 mmday at 30 C In addition the results showed that T harzianum Jn14 and T hamatum T36 were the most effective isolates at 25C and inhibited R solani mycelial growth by 42 and 78 respectively due to fungitoxic metabolites production The Effect of Trichoderma on bean seedlings growth was obvious; height was nearly doubled 160 - 200 while fresh and dry weights increased by 133 and 217 respectively Ger- mination of bean seeds in treated soil with Trichoderma isolates occurred about four days earlier than those in untreated soils The results revealed however some variation between isolates which was due to genetic variation mycelium-coiling rate sporulation rate fungitoxic metabolites induced growth response and temperature effectSynthesis of a new series of heterocyclic scaffolds for medicinal purposes ArticlesA new series of substituted 8-fluro-4H-pyrimido[21-b] [13]benzothiazole-4-ones substituted 7-methyl-4H-isoxazolo[23-a]pyrimidin-4-ones and substituted 2-methyl-5678-tetrahydro-9H-isoxazolo[23-a]pyridopyrimidin-9-ones compounds IVII have been prepared via condensation of -keto esters with 2-aminopyridine derivatives in the presence of polyphosphoric acid The same technique has also been used to prepare diazepine compounds VIIIX by condensation of a -keto ester with 2-aminopyridine derivatives Details of synthetic procedures are shown The new compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis GCMS FT-IR and NMR spectrometry Antibacterial antifungal and anticancer cytotoxic activities for three of these compounds have been investigated and are presented European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Volume 41 Issue 8 August 2006 Pages 1017-1024 http:dxdoiorg101016jejmech200603025 Distribution, occurrence and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi in agricultural soil in the Palestinian area ArticlesThe occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi was investigated in irrigated vegetable fields and citrus orchards soils over a nine-month period April-December 1999using the Galleria bait method GBM Entomopathogenic fungi were found to occur in 336 of the soil samples studied with positive samples yielding 70 fungal isolates belonging to 20 species from 13 genera Conidiobolus coronatus was the most frequent and abundant entomopathogenic species recovered comprising 314 of the total number of isolates Soil pH soil moisture content and the geographical location had minor or no effect on the isolation of entomopathogenic fungi in the fields studied On the other hand organic matter content of soil and vegetation type were found to significantly affect the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soil habitats with orchard fields yielding larger numbers of isolates than vegetable fields Using Kochs postulates the pathogenicity of fungal isolates to Galleria larvae was found to range from 16100 mortality rate Isolates of C coronatus proved to be the most virulent isolates recovered The effect of media and temperature on mycelial growth rate conidial production and conidial germination of six entomopathogenic fungal species C coronatus Entomophaga grylli Erynia castrans Hirsutella jonesii Paecilomyces farinosus and Sporodiniella umbellata was also studied Mycelial growth rate spore production and spore germination were significantly affected by media temperature and isolates In view of the present results C coronatus appears to be a good candidate for pest control in agricultural soils as it has a wide tolerance to agricultural practices has frequently been isolated from both vegetable and orchard fields and is characterized by high mycelial growth rate conidial production and conidial germination Mycopathologia Volume 156 Number 3 October 2003Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams ArticlesThe biodiversity and richness of keratinophilic fungal communities including dermatophytes were assessed in three stream sites and three swimming pools in the Nablus district in Palestine using hair baiting HBT and surface dilution plate SDP techniques over 8- and 6-month periods respectively The effect of waste water effluent and selected ecological factors on these fungi in relation to species diversity and population densities were also considered Fifty keratinophilic fungal species were recovered from the aquatic habitats studied of which 42 were recovered from stream sites and 22 from swimming pools Of these fungi 6 were either dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes or dermatophyte related species Chrysosporium merdarium Ch tropicum Ch keratinophilum and T terrestre The most frequently isolated species in the three pools were Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium SDA The most abundant species were Acr strictum and Aspergillus flavus However only 4 species were isolated using the SDA medium amended with 5-flurocytosine 5-FC The most frequent and abundant species in the three stream sites using SDA medium were Geotricum candidum and Penicillium chrysogenum The most frequent species in the three sites using the 5-FC medium was Paecilomyces lilacinus Using HBT the most abundant and frequent species in the three stream sites were G candidum and Pa lilacinus on SDA medium and Pa lilacinus and Gliocladium nigrovirens on the 5-FC medium The 5-FC medium was more suitable for the isolation of dermatophytes and closely related species than the SDA medium; 6 were recovered on 5-FC whereas only one on the SDA medium Variation in the levels of keratinophilic fungal populations from the three stream sites sampled 5 times over an 8-month period followed comparable fluctuation patterns Waste water affected fungal population densities with the highest levels in the un-polluted stream sites and lowest in the heavily polluted sites Swimming pools polluted and un-polluted stream sites were found to be rich in pathogenic and potentially pathogenic fungi Mycopathologia Volume 156 Number 3 October 2003Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the Palestinian West Bank: Potential Vectors of Leishmaniasis ArticlesTwo forms of leishmaniasis are endemic to the Jenin district in the northern region of the West Bank Visceral leishmaniasis VL caused by Leishmania infantum mainly affects infants Cutaneous leishmaniasis CL affects a broader age group and is probably caused by L tropica Although the Jenin district is the most important focus of leishmaniasis in the West Bank the sand fly fauna of the area has never been studied in a systematic manner We collected base-line data on sand fly species their distribution and their feeding preferences to facilitate risk assessments for contracting leishmaniasis Light traps sticky traps insecticide knockdown collections aspirator and human-landing collections were used A total of 4082 sand flies was collected in foci of confidence limits andor VL between June and December 1998 Nine Phlebotomus species representing seven subgenera were identified: P Larroussius perfiliewi transcaucasicus Perfilev P La tobbi Adler Theodor P La mascitti canaaniticus Adler Theodor P La mascitti mascitti Grassi P La syriacus Adler Theodor P Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli P Synphlebotomus sp P Paraphlebotomus sergenti Parrot P Par jacusieli Theodor P Adlerius halepensis Theodor Two other Phlebotomus subspecies P La major major Annandale P La neglectus Tonnoir require confirmation In addition four species of the closely related genus Sergentomyia were also found: S Sergentomyia theodori Parrot S S fallax Parrot S Sintonius tiberiadis Adler Theodor Lourie S Sin christophersi Sinton Among five species of sand flies collected on human bait P papatasi constituted 90 followed by P major syriacus 8 and P mascitti 2 Sand fly human-biting activity occurred through the night and it was highest between 2400 and 0300 hours P papatasi P perfiliewi P major and Ptobbi were the more endophilic species constituting 93 of all flies caught indoors Seven Phlebotomus spp constitute potential vectors of leishmaniasis but the most probable ones are as follows: P papatasi the main human-biting species a recognized vector of L major CL P sergenti L tropica CL and P syriacus L infantum VL Journal of Medical Entomology 403:321-328 2003 Effects of Noise Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Hearing Threshold in School Children ArticlesThis study reports the association of noise pollution level with blood pressure systolic and diastolic heart rate and hearing threshold in school children The schools were selected randomly as to present quiet [Seida village 682-711 dBA] noisy [Nablus city 765-794 dBA] and very noisy [Tulkarem refugees camp 824-859 dBA] localities Strong positive correlation Pearson Correlation Coefficient were found between noise pollution level and systolic and diastolic blood pressure heart rate and hearing threshold at different frequencies The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure for the two sexes are correlated positively with the noise pollution level R = 0521 and 0440 respectively The hearing threshold levels of different frequencies correlated positively with the noise pollution level R = 0114 to 0267; where p c 005Palestinian plants as a source of antimycotics ArticlesPLANT-DERIVED ANTIMYCOTICS: CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Pages: 399-427 Published: 2003Prevalence of tinea capitis as well as of asymptomatic carriers in school children in Nablus area (Palestine) ArticlesA study of tinea capitis was carried out during October 1998 involving 8531 school children aged 614years 4718 males and 3813 females attending 12 primary schools located in urban rural and refugee camp communities in the Nablus district in the Palestinian Authority A total of 1389 of the school children aged 612years 724 males and 665 females were also surveyed on three occasions at 23month intervals over a 9-month period October 1998May 1999 using the hair brush technique for prevalence of asymptomatic tinea capitis carriage Twenty-three027 mycologically proven cases of tinea capitis were detected Mycoses Volume 45 Issue 5-6 Pages 188 - 194Hair and scalp mycobiota in school children in Nablus area ArticlesHair and scalp mycobiota of 1389 clinically normal children aged 612 years attending 12 schools in the Nablus District Palestinian Authority was assessed on three occasions over 8-month period October 1998May 1999 using the hair brush technique One hundred and one fungal species belonging to 33 genera were recovered: 6 dermatophytes 16 dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi and 79 other keratinophilic fungal species Species varied considerably in their frequency of occurrence and abundance based on their relative importance values RIVs The most frequent and abundant species were: Cladosporium cladosporioides Cl herbarum Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis Aphanoascus fulvescence and Chrysosporum sulfureum were the most frequent and abundant species of all dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi recovered The most frequent and abundant dermatophytes in different communities were M canis in rural RIV 087 and urban children 045 and Trichophyton violaceum 141 in refugee camp children Chrysosporium species were the most frequent and abundant dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungus in children from all localities followed by Aphanoascus fulvescence Comparable results on the frequency and abundance of human hair and scalp mycobiota component fungi were obtained based on age group and sex of children Higher number of species was recovered in spring months 73 species than in autumn 57 and winter 44 months Similar occurrence pattern was also noted for dermatophyte-like keratinophilic species and dermatophytes Higher percentages of children with moderate 1150 and heavy 50 spore loads 754 and 073 respectively were found in urban school children community than in rural and refugee camp school children 47 and 01 respectively Also significantly higher light 110 spore load percentages were found in rural 6367 and refugee camp 629 than in urban children 526 Of all localities school children with light spore load comprised the highest percentage of the children examined 374 followed by moderate 613 and heavy 041 spore load categories However children with undetected spore load comprised 3605 of all children Spore load distribution did not show clear seasonal variations in the study period Higher percentages of moderate and heavy spore loads were found in male children 872 and 069 respectively than in female children 34 and 01 respectively However higher percentages of undetected 383 or light spore loads 584 were found in females than in males 3404 and 5653 respectively Mycopathologia Volume 150 Number 3 June 2001Ethnobotanical survey in the Palestinian area: a classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants ArticlesAn ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the West Bank to evaluate the relative efficacy of the plants used to treat skin diseases and prostate cancer A total number of 102 informants 30 years and older and either native born or had been living in the West Bank for more than 30 years were interviewed using a previously prepared questionnaire Of about 165 plant species mentioned by the informants 63 381 were mentioned by three or more informants On the basis of their primary uses 21 of these plants were reported to relieve skin disorders 17 for urinary system disorders 16 for gastric disorders nine for cancer and prostate disorders eight for arthritis five for respiratory problems and five for other ailments Indices on fidelity levels FLs relative popularity level RPL and rank-order priority ROP were calculated Plants were classified in two groups: popular RPL=1 or unpopular RPL1 The following plant species were classified as popular in this study: Teucrium polium Matricaria aurea Urtica pilulifera Paronychia argentea Petroselinum sativum and Salvia fruticosa The remaining 57 species were classified as unpopular Fifty-nine plants were claimed to be effective against cancer and prostate disorders which include Arum dioscorides U pilulifera Allium sativum Viscum cruciatum and Allium cepa Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 73 Issues 1-2 November 2000 Pages 221-232 Keratinophilic fungi and related dermatophytes in polluted soil and water habitats ArticlesRaw city sewage irrigation seems to affect population densities of keratinophilic fungal communities with the highest population densities being found in the heavily polluted field soils while the lowest population densities occur in non-polluted field soils However basic similarities in the biodiversity of keratinophilic fungal communities exist in both non-polluted and polluted field soils and raw city sewage Comparable numbers of fungal species exist in these habitats and the species most commonly found include Alternaria alternata Aspergillus candidus Geotrichum candidum and Paecilomyces lilacinus Field soils receiving either raw city sewage or normal irrigation water were shown to be rich in pathogenic and potentially pathogenic keratinophilic fungi including dermatophytes with raw city sewage yielding the highest percentage followed by moderately polluted fields non-polluted fields and heavily polluted fields Dermatophytes and their related fungi recovered from these habitats include Microsporum gypseum Trichophyton ajelloi Arthroderma cuniculi A curreyi Chrysosporium keratinophilum C tropicum and C pannorum The ability of 55 cycloheximide-resistant fungal species 117 isolates to degrade human hair in vitro was investigated The species were recovered from polluted raw city wastewater-irrigation and non-polluted normal irrigation field soils and raw city wastewater The intensity of keratinolytic activity IKA was estimated on a scale of 0-100 based on morphological expression of keratinolysis A high percentage of the species tested 4855 87 demonstrated a varying degree of keratinolytic activity Five species Chrysosporium keratinophilum Microsporum gypseum Penicillium frequentans Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichophyton ajelloi showed strong IKA and were capable of producing invasive structures related to radial penetration and surface erosion contemporaneously On the other hand seven of all the tested species including Acremonium species Aspergillus carneus Nectria inventa Penicillium citrinum Paecilomyces variotii Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Verticillium nubilum showed no keratinolytic activity The keratinolytic activity of the following species is recorded in this study for the first time: Acremonium strictum Chrysosporium pannorum Cladosporium herbarum Fusarium tricinctum Gliocladium viride Humicola fuscoatra var fuscoatra Nectria ventricosa Penicillium griseofulvum P islandicum Verticillium catenulatum and V psalliotae Isolates of the same species can vary in their IKAs Thus such a characteristic does not seem to be constant or speciesspecificIsolation of Pythium Acanthicum, P. oligandrum, and P. periplocum from Soil and Evaluation of Their Mycoparasitic Activity and Biocontrol Efficacy Against Selected Phytopathogenic Pythium Species ArticlesMycoparasitic Pythium species with spiny oogonia were surveyed in 50 Palestinian agricultural fields subject to different cropping practices using the Sclerotia Bait Technique SBT and the Surface-Soil-Dilution-Plate method SSDP with the selective VP3 medium The mycoparasitic Pythium species were obtained from 21 42 soils using the SSDP method and from 37 74 soils using SBT Pythium acanthicum and P oligandrum were isolated by both methods whereas P periplocum was isolated only by the SBT Using a newly modified dual plate culture method MDPCM the three mycoparasites showed varying antagonistic performance against several Pythium host species under a range of in vitro conditions However P periplocum and P oligandrum were found to be active biocontrol agents against P ultimum the damping-off organism of cucumber This pathogen was antagonized on thin films of water agar by the three mycoparasites and was moderately susceptible to P periplocum while slightly susceptible to P acanthicum and P oligandrum In direct application method in which antagonistic mycoparasites were incorporated into peatsand mixture artificially infested with P ultimum under growthroom conditions Pythium oligandrum and P periplocum at 500 CFUg1 significantly improved seedling emergence and protected seedlings from damping-off In the seed coating method biocontrol by two types of seed dressing homogenate- or oospore coated seeds was comparable to that achieved by direct application Mycopathologia Volume 145 Number 3 March 1999Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes ArticlesThe aqueous extracts 15gml1 medium of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs against nine isolates of Microsporum canis Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100 compared with the control treatment Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly P005 between test plants Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M canis and T violaceum The most active extracts 90100 inhibition were those of Anagallis arvensis C spinosa J regia Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M canis; Inula viscosa J regia and P lentiscus against T mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus A arvensis C spinosa Clematis cirrhosa I viscosa J regia P lentiscus Plumbago europea Ruscus aculeatus Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T violaceum The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 06 to 40gml1 The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50 of the extracts followed by M canis and T mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14 of the extracts respectively Mycoses Volume 42 Issue 11-12 Pages 665 - 672Ecology of cycloheximide-resistant fungi in field soils receiving raw city wastewater or normal irrigation water ArticlesThe effect of raw city wastewater irrigation on biodiversity and population densities of a cycloheximide-resistant CH fungal community was studied in 13 field soils receiving either raw city wastewater or normal irrigation and in raw city wastewater in the Nablus area using the hair baiting technique HBT and a surface soil dilution plating SSDP technique Three of these fields [one had been receiving raw city wastewater for more than ten years and was designated a heavily polluted field and the other 2 were cultivated for the first time and were either irrigated with raw city wastewater newly polluted field or normal irrigation water nonpolluted] were sampled 47 times over a 9-month period The other ten fields which had been under raw city wastewater irrigation for more than 10 years were sampled only once Fifty-seven CH-resistant species belonging to 18 genera were recovered of which 49 species were recovered from soil habitats and 28 species from raw city wastewater The HBT had shown to be more efficient in the isolation of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic fungi including dermatophytes A higher percentage of this group of fungi was recovered from the three main field soils studied using HBT 70 of all isolates than the SSDP 355; no dermatophytes were recovered by the SSDP method Two dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton ajelloi and five more fungi Arthroderma cuniculi A curreyi Chrysosporium keratinophilum C tropicum and C pannorum were recovered from these habitats Wastewater irrigation seemed to have affected the fungal population densities with the highest population densities being found in the heavily polluted field soil while lower population densities were found in the nonpolluted field soil Increases in organic matter were also observed as a result of sewage effluent irrigation However basic similarities in the biodiversity of CH-resistant fungal communities existed in nonpolluted and polluted field soils and raw city wastewater Comparable numbers of fungal species were recovered from the three main field soils The species most commonly found in those habitats included: Alternaria alternata Aspergillus candidus Geotrichum candidum and Paecilomyces lilacinus Field soils receiving either raw city wastewater or normal irrigation water were found to be rich in pathogenic and potentially pathogenic CH-resistant fungi including dermatophytes with raw city wastewater yielding the highest percentage 81 followed by the newly wastewater irrigated field 777 the nonpolluted field 67 and the heavily polluted field 634 Hygienic measures should therefore be taken to control the spread of these fungi in the environment of human communities and to avoid mycotic infections among farmers Mycopathologia Volume 144 Number 1 October 1998Epidemiological study of tinea capitis in schoolchildren in the Nablus area (West Bank) ArticlesA study of tinea capitis was carried out during the period January-June 1996 in 7525 primary schoolchildren aged 6-14 years comprising 4050 boys and 3475 girls in the Nablus district in the Palestinian area Fourteen primary schools located in rural urban and refugee camp areas were surveyed in this study Seventy-five 10 mycologically proven cases of tinea capitis were detected The incidence was higher in schools in rural areas 19 than in refugee camps 11 or urban areas 04 Also the incidence was higher in young children 14 aged 6-10 years than in older children 05 aged 10-14 years Boys 52 13 were more commonly affected than girls 23 07 Higher disease incidence was found to be correlated with larger family and class sizes Trichophyton violaceum was the most common aetiological agent 827 followed by Microsporum canis 16 and Trichophyton schoenleinii 13 The findings are discussed in relation to the childrens different socioeconomic and hygienic backgrounds A mycological investigation carried out on 117 tinea capitis cases at a clinic in the area under study showed similar results to those of the school survey Source: MYCOSESVolume: 41Issue: 5-6Pages: 243-248Published: MAY-JUN 1998Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area ArticlesEthanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus vulgaris Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one yeast Candida albicans The plants showed 90 of antimicrobial activity with significant difference in activity between the different plants The most antimicrobially active plants were Phagnalon rupestre and Micromeria nervosa whereas the least active plant was Ziziphus spina-christi Only ten of the tested plant extracts were active against C albicans with the most active from M nervosa and Inula viscosa and the least active from Ruscus aculeatus Of all extracts the ethanolic extract of M nervosa was the most active whereas the aqueous extract of Phagnalon rupestre was the most active of all aqueous extracts tested The ethanolic extracts 70 showed activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 40 of these extracts showed anticandidal activity whereas 50 of the aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity and 20 of these extracts showed anticandidal activity Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 60 Issue 3 April 1998 Pages 265-271 Antimicrobial activity of Micromeria nervosa from the Palestinian area ArticlesOrganic and aqueous solvent extracts and fractions of Micromeria nervosa Desf Benth Labiatae were investigated for antimicrobial activities on several microorganisms including bacteria and yeast The different extracts differed significantly in their antimicrobial activities with the ethanolic extract being most active followed by ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts The least active extract was the aqueous No significant difference between the different test microorganisms in their susceptibility to different extracts with Candida albicans being the most susceptible to ethanolic extract giving 15 times the effect of nystatin One of the main active ingredients of M nervosa was isolated and identified as carvacrol No significant difference in antimicrobial activity was found between carvacrol and its isomer thymol The most susceptible test microorganism was Proteus vulgaris to carvacrol and P vulgaris and C albicans to thymol The least susceptible bacterium to both fractions was Pseudomonas aeruginosa Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentrations MBC or MFC were determined for both compounds Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 58 Issue 3 November 1997 Pages 143-147 Emodin, A Naturally Occuring Anthraquinone: Its Isolation and Spectrophotometric Determination in Rumex Cyprius Plant ArticlesA new method for isolation and specrophotometric determination of emodin is presented Emodin was isolated by thin layer chromatography tlc and column chromatography cc techniques as an orange long crystalline substance Emodin exhibits two absorption maxima at 420 and 520 nm Stability of the color and the effect of pH were studied Beers law is obeyed in the range 2-30 ppm The method is applied to the determination of emodin in roots stems and leaves of Rumex cyprius plant Spectroscopy Letters Volume 29 Issue 8 December 1996 pages 1539 - 1543Phytophthora-Citrophthora and P-Nicotianae in 2 Contrasting Citrus Plantations in the West-Bank, Middle-East ArticlesDuring a survey extending over 8 months Phytophthora strains were isolated from two Citrus plantations in the West Bank contrasting in agricultural management and climate Jordan Valley and Tulkarem regions This was the first survey for Phytophthora on Citrus in this region Four techniques were used for isolations soil dilution direct isolation from plant material and baiting soil with Citrus leaf discs or lupin radicles Species were identified using morphological and growth characteristics Only two species were detected namely Phytophthora citrophthora and P nicotianae Highest numbers of P citrophthora and P nicotianae isolates were obtained by soil dilution and Citrus baiting with the former discriminating in favour of P nicotianae Direct isolation from plant material and lupin baiting were the least successful recovery methods Differences in spatial distribution of isolates could be related to differing agricultural management and geographical features of the plantations Although the species distribution was similar in the two plantations the total number of isolates recovered differed significantly between subsites in the Jordan Valley plantation The number of isolates obtained from sequential soil samples also varied and was generally higher in samples taken in the cooler wetter winter months Significantly more isolates were found in the Tulkarem plantation Irrigation at Tulkarem was by flooding while spot irrigation was used in the Jordan Valley The longer established Tulkarem plantation contained a mixture of Citrus cultivars unlike the newer Jordan Valley orchard Source: ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PFLANZENKRANKHEITEN UND PFLANZENSCHUTZ-JOURNAL OF PLANT DISEASES AND PROTECTIONVolume: 102Issue: 2Pages: 151-163Published: APR 1995Microbiological Screening of the Environments of Two Hospitals in Nablus ArticlesBoth blood agar and MacConkey plates were used for the isolation of bacteria from the environments of two hospitals in Nablus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Escherichia coli and Staphylococci were isolated from saline solution kept in glass bottles for washing and cleansing wounds suction machines respirators endotracheal tubings oxygen pumps and sinks Alcaligenes odorans was isolated from the suction machines and Dettol solution Aeromonas species were isolated from deionized water and sinks the implications of these findings were also discussedOccurrence of Phytophthora Species in Recirculated Nursery Irrigation Effluents ArticlesWater samples were collected from effluent holding ponds at one northern and two southern California nurseries that practice the capture and recirculation of irrigation runoff water Nursery effluent samples were collected approximately monthly over a 12-mo period and aliquots filtered through 045-mum Millipore filters Filter residues were resuspended and dispersed onto selective agar media in petri dishes to estimate the numbers of viable propagules of Phytophthora spp or total pythiacious fungi Propagule numbers varied greatly from month to month at each nursery location Pythium propagules were consistently the most numerous ranging from 500 to 1500 per liter whereas the number of Phytophthora spp propagules ranged from 0 to 400 per liter At the northern California nursery propagule numbers were lowest during winter months and highest during warm seasons Seasonal fluctuations in inoculum load were not apparent in the southern California nurseries P citrophthora was the most commonly detected Phytophthora sp Other species frequently recovered included P citricola P cinnamomi and P cryptogea Isolates of P parasitica P megasperma and P syringae were recovered less frequently Water samples also were tested for Phytophthora spp using commercially available ELISA tests The ELISA reaction intensity of filter pad extracts was correlated with the numbers of propagules estimated to be on the filters but the correlation was stronger at some times than at others This is believed to reflect temporal differences in water sample quality or species mixtures Source: PLANT DISEASEVolume: 78Issue: 6Pages: 607-611Published: JUN 1994Plumbagin, a Naturally Occurring Naphthoquinone: Its Isolation, Spectrophotometric Determination in Roots, Stems, and Leaves in Plumbago Europaea L. ArticlesA new method for isolation and spectrophotometric determination of plumbagin is presented Plumbagin was isolated by thin layer chromatography TLC and column chromatography CC techniques as an orange tinged yellow long crystalline substances Plumbagin exhibits two absrop-tion maxima at 410 and 510 nm Stability of the color pKa value and the effect of pH were studied Beers law is obeyed over the range 09-45 ppm The method is applied to the determination of plumbagin in roots stems and leaves of Plumbago europaea L plant Spectroscopy Letters Volume 27 Issue 4 May 1994 pages 409 - 416A Method for Using Commercial Elisa Tests to Detect Zoospores of Phytophthora and Pythium Species in Irrigation Water ArticlesCommercially available ELISA tests for detecting Phytophthora and Pythium species were used to detect propagules of these genera in water samples Samples were filtered through 045-mu-m filters to concentrate propagules before extraction Heating filter residues to 100 C for 5 min yielded extracts that were equal or superior in reactivity to those obtained by liquid nitrogen disruption As few as 30-40 zoospore cysts were detected in filter pad extracts Detection sensitivity propagules per liter depends on the volume of water that can be passed through the filters A water sample collected in late winter from a recycling pond in a northern California nursery did not contain any viable propagules of pythiaceous fungi or detectable antigen A similar water sample collected in early spring from a southern California nursery contained 442 viable propagules per liter of water The species recovered on agar media were Phytophthora parasitica P citrophthora P cryptogea and an unidentified Phytophthora species in addition to Pythium coloratum P rostratum P middletonii P ultimum var sporangiferum and Pythium L group Reactivity of filter extracts in Phytophthora ELISA tests was proportional to the quantity of filter residue extracted All of the Phytophthora species recovered reacted positively with Phytophthora kits and negatively with Pythium kits All of the Pythium species recovered also reacted positively with Phytophthora and negatively with Pythium kits With a relatively simple filter-extraction procedure the ELISA kits effectively detected Phytophthora and Pythium in water samples Although the test are fallible at the genus level they still could be used in commercial nurseries where there is no known acceptable tolerance for these genera in irrigation waterKeratinophilic fungi of school playgrounds in the Nablus area, West Bank of Jordan ArticlesThe distribution of keratinophilic fungi in the soil of 57 school playgrounds in the Nablus area was studied with relation to human presence A total number of 73 species was recovered Thirteen of these species were dermatophytes and closely related fungi The most common and frequent species of the latter fungi were: Arthroderma cuniculi found in 321 of school playgrounds Chrysosporium keratinophilum 321 Microsporum gypseum 107 T terrestre 71 and C asperatum 71 Twenty eight of the isolated species had been reported to be pathogenic; these comprised 643 of the keratinophilic mycoflora of school playgrounds Mycopathologia Volume 106 Number 2 May 1989Keratinophilic fungi on sheep hairs from the West Bank of Jordan ArticlesThe mycoflora of the hair in 285 sheep from the West Bank of Jordan was analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value for different fungal species found were calculated Ninenty six species which belong to 36 genera were isolated Forty one of these species were either well-known agents of animal and human mycoses Trichophyton verrucosum T mentagrophytes Microsporum nanum M canis and others or have been isolated from human and animal lesions Arthroderma cuniculi A curreyi Chrysosporium tropicum Acremonium kiliense Aphanoascus fulvuscens Aspergillus versicolor Paecilomyces lilacinus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and others These pathogenic fungi comprised 754 of all fungi recovered from the hair of sheep This animal seems to represent an adequate reservoir for several dermatophytes and several potentially pathogenic fungi Mycopathologia Volume 106 Number 2 May 1989Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from floor dust in Arab elementary and preparatory schools in the West Bank of Jordan ArticlesFloor dust collected from classrooms of thirty three elementary schools 16 for girls and 17 for boys children aged 611 and twenty four preparatory schools 13 for girls and 11 for boys children aged 1214 was studied for the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi with respect to human presence and age of children Tichophyton mentagrophytes was present in 154 of the preparatory schools for girls in 125 of elementary schools for girls and in 118 of elementary schools for boys It was not found in preparatory schools for boys Microsporum gypseum was found in preparatory schools for girls only 77 Trichophyton terrestre was also only isolated from elementary schools for boys 59 Chrysosporium species were present in 303 of all elementary schools 10 schools33 and in 208 of all preparatory schools 5 schools24 Geotrichum candidum was the most frequent and predominant keratinophilic species in all schools Pathogenic and potentially pathogenic keratinophilic fungi comprised a large proportion of all fungal isolates recovered from all schools ; they comprised 872 895 of all fungal isolates in the elementary schools and 904935 of all fungal isolates in preparatory schools Mycopathologia Volume 106 Number 1 April 1989Prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of intestinal parasitic infections in the Nablus area, West Bank of Jordan. ArticlesA total of 22970 stool specimens collected from patients attending the Central Medical Laboratory in the city of Nablus in the period of 1981-1986 were examined for intestinal parasites Of these 7412 323 were positive Entamoeba histolytica 229 Giardia lamblia 73 and Ascaris lumbricoides 57 were the most prevalent intestinal parasites found Other intestinal parasites present included Hymenolepis nana Trichomonas hominis Trichuris trichiura Taenia saginata Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis Seasonal occurrence of intestinal parasites in the West Bank of Jordan was also studied in the period January 1981-August 1987 Lower prevalence rates of intestinal parasites generally occurred during winter and early spring Peak incidence occurred during summer and early autumn The reasons for these seasonal variations are discussed Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1989 Feb;831:67-72Keratinophilic fungi on the hair of cows, donkeys, rabbits, cats, and dogs from the West Bank of Jordan ArticlesThe mycoflora of hair of 111 cows donkeys rabbits cats and dogs were analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value of the different fungal species isolated were calculated Total numbers of species 56 45 48 23 and 11 were recovered from cows donkeys rabbits cats and dogs respectively The majority of the keratinophilic fungi isolated were either well-known mycotic agents or have been recovered from various animal and human lesions These comprised 878 667 614 593 and 552 of the hair mycoflora in cats dogs rabbits cows and donkeys respectively Seven species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton mentagrophytes T verrucosum Microsporum gypseum M nanum T ajelloi and M canis Cats harboured the largest number of dermatophytes 5 species followed by cows 4 spp rabbits 3 spp and donkeys and dogs 1 sp The role of these animals in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic fungi is discussed Mycopathologia 1988 Nov;1042:109-21