An-Najah Blogs http://blogs.najah.edu An-Najah Blogs en-us Mon, 24 Apr 2017 16:05:49 IDT Mon, 24 Apr 2017 16:05:49 IDT webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu Effective teaching from an Najah National University M.A Student s’ perspectiveshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/Effective-teaching-from-an-Najah-National-University-MA-Student-srsquo-perspectivesPublished ArticlesThis study aimed at exploring effective teaching from An-Najah National University MA students perspectives It also aimed at determining the role of the study variables gender accumulative average in BA and the school stage where they teach in effective teaching from the same perspectives To achieve these aims the researchers used structured questionnaire of 21 items which were distributed among 30 TEFL majors 14 males and 16 females that shape the sample of the study which was chosen randomly from all the MA TEFL majors The study occurs during the first semester of the academic year 2014 2015 Respondents\ results indicate a moderate degree of effective teaching from An Najah National University MA TEFL students perspective with a percentage of 715 Staff members who are imaginative can do wonders in the English class whose ideas break monotony and make students participate lively in the class are considered the best They can also teach any language skills interestingly and effectively as they can develop students\ creative self-expression Based on these major findings the researchers recommended the use of pedagogies that promote thinking and analytical skills and invite students to participate Other comparative studies in more than one university along with considering other variables that are not included or considered by this research are also recommendedStorytelling as an Aid in Promoting Oral Proficiency of Grade Eleven Students From Teachers’ Perspectives in Tulkarm Districthttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/Storytelling-as-an-Aid-in-Promoting-Oral-Proficiency-of-Grade-Eleven-Students-From-Teachersrsquo-Perspectives-in-Tulkarm-DistrictPublished ArticlesThis study aimed to investigate the role of storytelling in promoting students oral proficiency from the teachers perspectives in Tulkarm District To achieve this aim the researchers prepared a 30-item questionnaire which was distributed among 50 male and female governmental school teachers who teach English for Palestine for Grade 11 in Tulkarm District during the second semester of the scholastic year 20112012 The researchers used different statistical procedures which fit the collected data The results of the study revealed that most of English teachers agreed that storytelling plays a remarkable role in promoting the 11th grade students oral proficiency in the classroom In the light of these results the researchers recommended using storytelling to motivate students to speak in the classroom and to conduct studies on digital storytelling as an aid in promoting oral proficiencyStudents\\\' Attitude towards Distance Learning at Al-Quds Open University/ Tulkarem Educational Regionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/Students-Attitude-towards-Distance-Learning-at-Al-Quds-Open-University-Tulkarem-Educational-RegionPublished ArticlesThe aim of this study is to examine the students\ attitude towards open learning at Al- Quds Open University To achieve this aim the researcher used a 30-item questionnaire which was distributed among 92 male and female students 2 of the whole population who were chosen randomly from four educational specializations: Education social service administration and technology The researcher used different statistical procedures such as means and percentages independent paired t- test and the one way ANOVA test to analyze the necessary data for the research Results revealed that students highly value distance learning system because it offers a good opportunity for higher education to a large number of students who want to pursue their education by overcoming the spatial economical and social barriers It also provides self directedness and autonomous learning opportunities In the light of these findings the researcher recommended the consideration of lack of campus activities and rarity of instructor- student interaction for a viable distance learning systemThe Challenge of Classroom Leadership and Management Facing Newly Appointed Teachershttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/The-Challenge-of-Classroom-Leadership-and-Management-Facing-Newly-Appointed-TeachersPublished ArticlesAbstract This study aims at exploring the problem of classroom managementas a facet of teacher leadershipfacing newly appointed teachers in Palestines public schools Its main purpose is to determine the relationship of attitudes and behaviors as well as other study variables such as gender and academic qualification to classroom management for newly appointed teachers To achieve this the researcher used a 14-item questionnaire distributed among a sample of 30 male and female teachers randomly selected from a cohort of 150 of newly appointed teachers in the West Bank governorate of Qabatia The study was conducted during the first semester of the scholastic year 2014 2015 In collecting and analyzing the data necessary for the study the researcher used different statistical procedures such as means frequencies and independent t-test The findings indicate a low competency level of 537 in classroom management skills among newly appointed teachers In the light of this finding the study recommends the inclusion of class management theory and practice in the syllabus of the practicum courses for all courses in pre-service teacher education Likewise the study recommends that school principals with support from district leadership provide newly appointed teachers with structured systematic induction and mentoring by experienced teachers who can model effective classroom leadershipThe Role of Educational Counseling in Reducing Conduct Disorders Among Students of Primary Stage in Nablus Governoratehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/The-Role-of-Educational-Counseling-in-Reducing-Conduct-Disorders-Among-Students-of-Primary-Stage-in-Nablus-GovernoratePublished ArticlesAbstract This study aimed at investigating the role of educational counseling in reducing conduct disorders among students of primary stage in Nablus directorate To achieve this aim the researchers used a forty-item questionnaire which was distributed among 1727 students represented 10 schools selected randomly by using cluster random sample from grade four to grade six in the government schools in Nablus governorate In collecting the necessary data for answering the questions of the study the researchers used means standard deviations percentages and degrees for all items and total score of conduct disorders questionnaire items Additionally MANCOVA Test was used to find out the differences in conduct disorders due to study variables-Counseling services Gender Place and Achievement Results of this study showed that the level of conduct disorders among the study sample was moderate Significant differences were shown on the study variables as follows:- between schools with counseling services and schools without in favor of schools with Between males and females in favor of males Between city villages and camps in favor of camps Between students of different averages in favor of low achievers 50-60 In the light of these findings the researchers recommended overspreading counseling to all schools Improving counseling training is another important recommendation for the Ministry of EducationNumerical Methods for Solving Fuzzy Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kindhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/naji-qatanani/article/Numerical-Methods-for-Solving-Fuzzy-Fredholm-Integral-Equation-of-the-Second-KindPublished ArticlesIn this article some numerical methods namely: the Taylor expansion method and the Trapezoidal method have been implemented to solve a fuzzy Fredholm integral equation of the second kind Consequently we convert a linear fuzzy Fredholm integral equation of the second kind into a linear system of integral equations of the second kind in crisp case To demonstrate the credibility of these numerical schemes we consider a numerical test examlple The numerical results show to be in a close agreement with the exact solutionThe Most Common Spelling Errors Arab Students From Grades 6-9 Make in Their Learning of Englishhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/The-Most-Common-Spelling-Errors-Arab-Students-From-Grades-6-9-Make-in-Their-Learning-of-EnglishPublished ArticlesThe study aims to investigate the most common spelling mistakes English learning students from Grades 6-9 in Nablus and Jenin UNRWA schools make in light of gender and grade variables For this purpose the researcher dictates texts from the school textbooks of these grades to a sample of 241 students 107 males and 134 females Potential of Biomass as an Alternative Fuel in Palestine- Amounts and methods of conversionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/abusafa/article/Potential-of-Biomass-as-an-Alternative-Fuel-in-Palestine--Amounts-and-methods-of-conversionPublished Articlesthese days there is much talk about the alternative fuel and clean-burning as an alternative for petrol Palestine is known to be very poor country in terms of fossil fuel resources At the same time energy alternatives are not defined well specially the non-conventional types such as biomass Biomass can be defined as material which is recently derived from animals and plants that use sunlight to grow In this research all types and amount of biomass that exist in Palestine that can be used as an alternative fuel for petrol was analyzed and defined by a comprehensive field survey The sources of clean and alternative energy which depend on the biomass using traditional and new technologies were discussed This research aims to investigate the biomass and new process to find out a durable and a reliable alternative energy source for Palestinians All results in this study showed biomass waste can be used to produce a new energy source in the form of clean fuel and high efficiency which constitutes an alternative source for traditional fuel in several applications The most important of these applications is electricity production Final results shows 797GWh of electrical energy a can be generated annually by using biogas process from biomass residue and household solid waste and approximately 824GWh can be generated when gasification process used for the same waste Anti-allergic Effect of Thymus serpyllum on Ova Albumin-Induced Asthma inhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/nidaljaradat/article/Anti-allergic-Effect-of-Thymus-serpyllum-on-Ova-Albumin-Induced-Asthma-inPublished Articles Herbalism has a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine even before recorded history It is becoming more mainstream as improvements in analysis and quality control along with advances in clinical research show the value of herbal medicine in the treating and preventing inflammatory and other diseases This focuses the attention on the possibility of the presence of anti-allergic compounds in the extracts of some plants that may help control common allergic diseases including asthma To test the possible anti-allergic and prophylactic effects of the aqueous extract of Thymus serpyllum L Ts on ovalbumin-induced asthma clinical and hematological parameters in Syrian hamster models Synthesis of Naproxen pro-drugs for enhanced transdermal absorptionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/nidaljaradat/article/Synthesis-of-Naproxen-pro-drugs-for-enhanced-transdermal-absorptionPublished Articles Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs NSAIDs such as Naproxen have been used for a long time for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation conditions However the oral administration of NSAIDs for a long time can cause gastric mucosal damage which may result in ulceration and bleeding Therefore the development of a transdermal drug delivery TDD system of NSAIDs is of a great interest as it decreases GIT side effect and provides a constant release of drug in a determined period of time FREQUENCY AND ATTITUDES OF USING HAIR DYES AMONG PALESTINIAN WOMENhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/nidaljaradat/article/FREQUENCY-AND-ATTITUDES-OF-USING-HAIR-DYES-AMONG-PALESTINIAN-WOMENPublished Articles Objective: The objectives of the study were to identify the rate of using hair dyes among Palestinian women preferences motivations and attitudes towards their use Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July 2011 A self-administered questionnaire was used Results: Among 200 females interviewed 149 745 said that they used hair dyes Their reasons were to hide gray hair in 35 235 to improve the outlook in 36 242 and to change and to follow the new trends in 78 523 Natural dyes henna were the choice for 389 The main reason behind the preference of natural dyes was the belief they are safer than chemical dyes A small percentage used hair dyes during pregnancy and 215 thought that hair dyes may cause cancer Interchangeability between paracetamol tablets marketed in Palestine. Is there a quality reason for ahigher price?http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/nidaljaradat/article/Interchangeability-between-paracetamol-tablets-marketed-in-Palestine-Is-there-a-quality-reason-for-ahigher-pricePublished Articles ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of 10 commercial paracetamol products available on the Palestinian market We carried out a survey on the price of all paracetamol tablet products and assessed their quality To assess quality all products were examined visually for their organoleptic properties tested for weight uniformity friability disintegration and dissolution profile and assayed for paracetamol content All imported products were 2 to 3 times more expensive than the locally produced generic products Based on our testing procedure all paracetamol products were equivalent to the innovator product except for 1 imported product which fell below the approved specifications developed for the innovator product Use of herbal medicines during pregnancy in agroup of Palestinianwomenhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/nidaljaradat/article/Use-of-herbal-medicines-during-pregnancy-in-agroup-of-PalestinianwomenPublished ArticlesEthnopharmacological relevance: The useofherbalmedicinesduringpregnancyiscommonworldwide due tophysiologicalchangesthatleadtopregnancyrelatedproblems Objectives: The aimsofthisstudyweretomeasuretheprevalenceandpredictorsofherbuseamong a groupofPalestinianpregnantwomenandthepossibleinfluence ofherbalconsumptiononpregnancy outcomes قراءة تأملية في سورة الحجرhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_1305/article/article-21Published Articles Evaluation of Darkroom disease\'s symptoms among radiographers in the West Bank hospitals: a cross-sectional study in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/halzabadi/article/Evaluation-of-Darkroom-diseases-symptoms-among-radiographers-in-the-West-Bank-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesBackground Radiographers report many unexplained work related symptoms attributed to \darkroom disease symptoms\ such as headache skin rash mouth sores blurred vision palpitation and chemical taste The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of occupationally-related darkroom disease symptoms among male radiographers in the West Bank hospitals Methods A cross sectional study was conducted on a non-random purposive sample of male radiographers study group and nurses control group using a previously validated and standardized questionnaire Results We were able to recruit 330 radiographers and 242 nurses Data analysis showed that the majority of both groups aged between 36-43 years Furthermore the differences in the reported prevalence of symptoms among radiographers showed a statistically significant higher percentage for each reported symptom compared to nurses P-values 0001 In multivariate linear regression staying more than 30 minutes in the darkroom per shift was associated with a significant increase in the mean number of reported symptoms P-value 0001 However the availability of a ventilating machine in the darkroom showed a strong negative association with the mean number of reported symptoms P-value 0001 Conclusions Our findings could help overcome the limitations usually encountered in such complex occupational exposure However trying to interpret our finding directly to chemicals exposure in the radiographers\ occupational setting should be done with caution due to the absence of active or passive monitoring for the suspected chemicalsPERCENTAGE PREVALENCE OF EIMERIAN SPECIES IN AWASSI SHEEP IN NORTHERN OF PALESTINEhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/rateb-2276/article/PERCENTAGE-PREVALENCE-OF-EIMERIAN-SPECIES-IN-AWASSI-SHEEP-IN-NORTHERN-OF-PALESTINEPublished ArticlesThe prevalence and the species of Eimeria oocysts in 180 fecal samples of immature and adult domestic Awassi sheep were screened in 16 farms in four provinces northern Palestine the overall incidence of the all types of coccidian oocysts was 6875 The prevalence of the oocysts in was significantly higher p005 in farms in Tubas mean 100 compared to Jenin mean 75 Nablus mean 50 and Tulkarem mean 50 The prevalence of the oocysts was significantly higher p005 in immature sheep less than one year with mean of 60 compared to adult sheep more than a year with mean of 40 Eight species of Eimeria were indentified they and their prevalence were E Crandalis 1888 E Parva 1444 E Intricata 1277 E Ovina 10 E Ahsata 888 E Ovinoidalis 833 E Pallida 722 and E Faurei 6666 a single infection was not observed all of the infected sheep had mixed infections with two to five speciesShort-term outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy among obesity patients in the northern west bank: a retrospective records reviewhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/halzabadi/article/Short-term-outcomes-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-among-obesity-patients-in-the-northern-west-bank-a-retrospective-records-reviewPublished ArticlesBackground Conservative methods for weight loss are usually disappointing Therefore surgeries such as Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy LSG should be considered We aimed to evaluate the outcomes body mass index; BMI of LSG among obesity patients in the Northern West Bank Methods Hospital records were reviewed for all patients who had undergone LSG since 2010 in Arab specialized hospital in Nablus and Palestinian Red Crescent society hospital in Tulkarem Then patients have been invited again to participate in the study and asked to self-report further pre-post-operative measures The primary study outcome was the change in BMI while secondary outcomes included obesity associated co-morbidities measures; hypertension HTN and diabetes mellitus DM Results The mean age standard deviation; SD of the study participants n=30; 20 women and 10 men was 3406 1071 years The mean SD follow-up time was 716 505 months The meanSD of the pre-operative BMI was 4723789kgm2 while 3674774kgm2 post-operatively 95 CI for mean differences and P-value; 883-1214 and 0001 For the clinically diagnosed hypertensive patients there was a mean SD reduction of 2750 987 mm Hg in systolic pressure P0026 and 1833 1366 of the diastolic blood pressure P0042 For diabetics there were clinically and biologically clear mean SD reductions in fasting blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin A1c of about 8200 2270 mgdl and 190 078 ; respectively Only practicing sports or exercise noyes remained significant with post-operative BMI regression coefficient B=733; P-value and 95 CI for B; 0009 and 1268- -198 Conclusions LSG can significantly improve BMI and could improve or resolve obesity associated co-morbidities like HTN and DM LSG could be recommended for co-morbid obesity patients who fail to reach beneficial results from a structured weight loss programs“A Once in a Lifetime Experience”: The Practice Placement in Palestine Project (PPP)—A Report” http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/alawi-1990/article/ldquoA-Once-in-a-Lifetime-Experiencerdquo-The-Practice-Placement-in-Palestine-Project-PPPmdashA-Reportrdquo-Published ArticlesThe Practice Placement in Palestine Project is the result of collaborative efforts aimed at offering students from Lillehammer University College in Norway practical training in Palestinian refugee camps The project brought the two cultures into close contact through which an exchange of ideas cultural values and educational and social experiences took place This contact aids in offering students educational opportunities that qualify them in their field of study and better their understanding of Arabic and Islamic culture This article offers explicit description of the project\s vision components theoretical frames procedures successes and obstacles The project is unique in its proposals results and prospectsSeroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Goats in Two Districts in Northern Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/rateb-2276/article/Prevalence-of-the-Red-Mite-Dermanyssus-gallinae-in-Layer-Flocks-in-four-Districts-in-NorthernWest-Bank-PalestinePublished Articles The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-T gondii in goats raised on farms in the Jenin and Tulkarm districts in the north of Palestine The investigation was conducted on 14 herds comprising of 280 goats Blood samples were collected via the jugular veins of 151 goats during the period from January to December 2011 The indirect ELISA test was used for the detection of anti-T gondii antibodies Results showed that an anti-Tgondii IgG antibody was detected in 134 of the samples The presence of the anti-T gondii antibody was influenced by the location of the goat herds The highest incidence was in Jenin district 1744 while it was 769 in Tulkarm district These results indicated the possible contamination of meat and milk of the goats with this parasite which in turn negatively affects human health Computational Methods for Solving Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kindhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/naji-qatanani/article/Computational-Methods-for-Solving-Fredholm-Integral-Equation-of-the-Second-KindPublished ArticlesThe main purpose of this paper is the numerical solution of the one-dimensional linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind by the collocation and the Nystroem methods using the Lagrange basis functions for piecewise linear interpolation Some effective algorithms implementing these methods using Matlab software have been constructed The numerical results of test examples are also included to verify the performance of the proposed algorithms وجدوى توظيفها في مؤسسات التعليم العالي في ضوء جودة التعليم وحرية الاستخدام (MOOCs) فلسفة المقررات الجماعية العامة المباشرة http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/alizuhdi/article/--------------MOOCs---------Published Articlesتستعرض الدراسة الحالية تقديم إحدى التوجهات الحديثة في التعليم العالي والمتمثلة في المقررات الجماعية العامة المباشرة MOOCs وجدوى توظيفها في مؤسسات التعليم العالي في ضوء جودة التعليم وحرية الاستخدام فتتناول ضرورة تفعيل دور التكنولوجيا في رفع مستوى جودة التعليم العالي والحاجة الملحة لذلك نظراً للتغيرات المجتمعية الحالية وتستعرض الأسس النظرية التي اعتمدتها هذه المقررات وانعكاساتها على جودة التعليم العالي وقد أبرزت الدراسة الحالية الجوانب المتعلقة بالملكية الفكرية لهذه المقررات بالنسبة لكل من المعلم والمتعلم والمؤسسة التعليمية وأخيرا تناولت جدوى توظيف المقررات الجماعية في مؤسسات التعليم العالي في الموطن العربي وخلصت الدراسة بالعديد من التوصيات من بينها تشجيع المؤسسات التعليمية على الانفتاح على المقررات الجماعية العامة المباشرة والاستفادة منها من خلال عقد الندوات والمحاضرات وورش العمل للتعرف عليها و التنسيق والتعاون بين مؤسسات التعليم ومؤسسات الدولة لدعم تصميم ونشر هذا النوع من المقررات وتدريب المعلمين في المؤسسات التعليمية على استراتيجيات تصميم وتطوير هذه المقررات تصور مقترح لتربية المواطنة من منظور حقوقيhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/aliaassali/article/article-11Published Articles هدف البحث الحالي الى التعرف إلى مؤشرات المنظومة المطورة لتربية المواطنة الفاعلة من منظور حقوقي، ومن ثم التعرف إلى مدى توافر مؤشرات هذه المنظومة المطورة لتربية المواطنة الفاعلة من منظور حقوقي عالمي في موضوعات عناوين دروس مباحث تربية المواطنة في المرحلة الأساسية في الأقطار الأربعة، والتوصل في ضوئها الى تصور مقترح لدرس قائم على هذه المنظومة، وقد استخدم المنهج الوصفي في مراجعة وتحليل الأدبيات المتصلة بمتغيرات البحث وإجراء الدراسة التحليلية لمناهج التربية المدنية في الاردن وفلسطين ولبنان وسوريا للعام الدراسي 2012-2013 موضوعات عناوين دروس مباحث تربية المواطنة وفي ضوء طبيعة البحث وأهدافه تطلب البحث القيام ببناء منظومة تربية المواطنة الفاعلة من منظور حقوقي، والدرس المطور في ضوئها واظهرت نتائج التحليل تبايناً ما بين الأقطار الأربعة في درجة تمثيلها لمؤشرات المنظومة المطورة في مجالاتها الثلاث حيث كان تركيز عناوين دروس محتوى كتب مناهج تربية المواطنة في الأقطار الأربعة على البعد المعرفي بالدرجة الأولى، وبشكل اكبر من اهتمامها بالجانبين القيمي والمهاري وهذا يؤكد على الفلسفة التقليدية للتعلم التي ترى في المعارف والحقائق غايتها، وبأن حشو المعلومات في ذهن المتعلم دون الاهتمام بانعكاساتها على منظومة الضمير لديه أو حتى لبناء المهارات اللازمة للمضي في حياته العملية والاجتماعية والسياسية كمواطن فاعل وقادر على مواجهة تحديات الحياة بجدارة كما وان اهتمام عناوين دروس محتوى كتب مناهج تربية المواطنة بمؤشرات المنظومة المطورة في جانبها القيمي هو الأقل وذلك كما ظهر في تحليل الاردن وسوريا، مما يفقد عملية التعلم من مضمونها الحقيقي الذي يهدف الى بناء شخصية المواطن المؤمن بقيم إنسانية عادلة، والمتبني لاتجاهات قائمة على احترام حقوق الإنسان اما بالنسبة لسوريا فقد كانت عناوين دروس محتوى كتب مناهج تربية المواطنة في سوريا هي الأقل تمثيلاً لمؤشرات المنظومة المطورة في مجالاتها الثلاث وفيما يتعلق بنتائج تحليل لبنان فقد كانت عناوين دروس محتوى كتب مناهج تربية المواطنة في لبنان هي الأحسن حالاً من بين الأقطار الأربعة في تمثيلها وتناولها لمؤشرات المنظومة المطور في مجالاتها الثلاث وفي ضوء مخرجات التحليل قامت الباحثة باقتراح نموذج لدرس للصف الثامن الاساسي مرفق بدليل للمعلم، وقد حمل الدرس عنوان \\\العدالة الاجتماعية والمساواة\\\، جمع الدرس ما بين الجوانب الثلاث المعرفية والقيمية والمهارية حيث كانت البداية بالتعرض للمفاهيم وانعكاساتها المعرفية، ومن ثم يكون الاعتماد في التعلم على المتعلم من خلال الانشطة الجماعية في الغالب والتي تنمي لدى المتعلم قيم التعاون والعمل الجماعي واحترام التعددية وقبول الاختلاف وتقبل النقد والنقد البناء على قاعدة احترام الحقوق والحريات، والتي تعتبر محوراً لفلسفة التعلم وتحقيقا لنتاجاته من هذا الدرس المطور، وقد كانت النصوص والانشطة والاسئلة الواردة في الدرس متضمنة للقيم والاتجاهات محور الدرس واعتمد الدرس المطور على استراتيجيات تعلم نشطة كالمناقشة الفاعلة والتعلم التعاوني، ويستعين المعلم في تنفيذه للدرس المطور بالعديد من الوسائل كاستخدام الشفافيات في العرض او الفيديو الذي يوضح وضعيات مختلفة من نسبية العداله الاجتماعية، والتي تفتح افاق النقاش الفاعل وتثير اهتمام ودافعية المتعلم للتعلم وتحقق نواتج التعلم المنشودة من الدرس وخرج البحث بعدد من التوصيات وهي ضرورة بناء أو تطوير مناهج تربية المواطنة بما يتوافق ومؤشرات المواطنة الفاعلة من منظور حقوقي، والتركيز على استراتيجيات التعلم النشطة في تدريس قيم واتجاهات ومهارات المواطنة الفاعلة، وضرورة مراعاة منظومة المدى والتتابع لدى بناء او تطوير مناهج تربية المواطنة، والاهتمام بمعيار الشمولية للمجالات الثلاث المعرفية والمهارية والقيمية لدى بناء او تطوير مناهج تربية المواطنة، وتضمين مؤشرات تربية المواطنة الفاعلة في موضوعات المباحث الدراسية المختلفة التقوى خير زاد : دراسةتحليلية لمقاصدها واثارها في سلوك الانسان كما جاءت في القران الكريمhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_1305/article/article-20Published Articlesبحثت هذه الدراسة عن مشتقات التقوى وصيغها وصنفت معانيها كما حللت مجالاتها وصنفت معاني المشتقات بالاضافة الى توضيحها للشخصية السوية المتكيفة التي تتصف بالتقوى Evaluating English for Palestine 12 in Terms of the EFL/ ESL Textbook Evaluating Checklist from the Teachers\\\' Perspectives in Nablus Directorate Schools http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ahmed2/article/Evaluating-English-for-Palestine-12-in-Terms-of-the-EFL-ESL-Textbook-Evaluating-Checklist-from-the-Teachers-Perspectives-in-Nablus-Directorate-Schools-Published ArticlesAbstract This study aimed at evaluating the Palestinian 12th grade textbooks in terms of the EFL ESL textbook evaluation checklist from the teachers\\\ perspectives in Nablus The study also examined the role of gender qualification and experience on the degree of evaluating the chosen textbooks To accomplish these aims the researcher used a 39- item questionnaire and then distributed it amongst the sample of the study which was chosen randomly and it consisted of 26 male and female teachers who teach English for the 12th grade in Nablus during the second semester of the academic year 2010-2011 After deep exploration and analysis of the new textbooks via comparing them with the used evaluative checklist the researcher found that these books could be suitable for the Palestinian students their culture and religion Therefore the researcher recommended using them in the Palestinian public and private schools after considering the suggested modifications Key words: Evaluating English for Palestine XII textbooks EFL ESL Evaluating Checklist Teachers\\\ PerspectivesAsymptotic Error Analysis for the Heat Radiation Boundary Integral Equationhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/naji-qatanani/article/Asymptotic-Error-Analysis-for-the-Heat-Radiation-Boundary-Integral-EquationPublished ArticlesIn this paper a rigorous convergence and error analysis of the Galerkin boundary element method for the heat radiation integral equation in convex and non-convex enclosure geometries is presented The convergence of the approximation is shown and quasi-optimal error estimates are presented Numerical results have shown to be consistent with available theoretical resultsdThe effect of intramuscular injection of spiramycin at therapeutic dose on some blood biochemical and hematological parameters in Assaf sheephttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/imz-2488/article/The-effect-of-intramuscular-injection-of-spiramycin-at-therapeutic-dose-on-some-blood-biochemical-and-hematological-parameters-in-Assaf-sheepPublished ArticlesSpiramycin is used to treatment of different bacterial and protozoal infection in different animal species including sheep to the authors knowledge there are no studies about effects of spiramycin in sheep blood biochemical and hematological parameters This study was designated to determine the effects of spiramycin intramuscular treatment at therapeutic dose 64000 IUkg for five days in some blood biochemical and hematological parameters in healthy Assaf sheep n=8 The results showed that spiramycin treatment caused decrease in calcium and creatinine level P005 without significant change in albumin total protein magnesium glucose and the adjusted calcium level P005 After treatment hematological parameters tend to decrease toward normal references range of red blood cell count haemoglobin concentration mean corpuscular hemoglobin mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell distribution width P005 No changes were observed in hematocrit mean corpuscular volume platelet count and mean platelet volume P005 All the measured biochemical and hematological parameters were in the normal references range after the treatment These results suggested that spiramycin given in therapeutic regimen to healthy Assaf sheep caused only minor inconclusive changes in the measured hematological and biochemical profiles; and thus can be used safely in treating susceptible infections in sheep These results might be accepted as a starting point for future experiments to evaluate the effects spiramycin on the different systems andparametersPresence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/imz-2488/article/Presence-of-Aflatoxin-M1-in-Raw-Milk-for-Human-Consumption-in-PalestinePublished Articles The absences or insufficient food control program result in the occurrence of mycotoxin in milk andmilk products which poses a serious risk for humans and can be a public health concern This study wasconducted to highlight the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in Palestine raw milk collected at farms fromTulkarm Nablus and Jenin Aflatoxin M1 was determined by direct competitive ELISA technique 85 34 of 40 of the total examined raw milk samples tested were positive The aflatoxin M1 contaminationlevels were between 3 - 80 ppt with a mean of 2957 ppt There was a high incidence rate with 92 11of 12 and the highest means of contaminated with aflatoxin M1 in the samples tested in Tulkarm city P 005 20 of the analyzed samples 8 of 40 exceeded the maximum permissible limit 50 ppt inEuropean Codex with a range of 2 - 80 ppt Associations between prescribing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the potential prescription-related problems in a primary care setting.http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/saedzyoud/article/Associations-between-prescribing-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-the-potential-prescription-related-problems-in-a-primary-care-settingPublished Articles Abdullah AH Dhabali WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Information National Poison Centre Universiti Sains Malaysia USM Penang Malaysia Rahmat Awang Sa\ed H Zyoud WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Information National Poison Centre Universiti Sains Malaysia USM Penang Malaysia Poison Control and Drug Information Center PCDIC An-Najah National University Nablus Occupied Palestinian Territory; WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Information National Poison Centre Universiti Sains Malaysia USM Penang Malaysia;College of Pharmacy An-Najah National University Nablus Palestine Abstract Objectives: The objectives of this study were 1 to obtain information regarding the prescribing pattern of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs in the primary care setting at a Malaysian university 2 to determine the prevalence and types of potential NSAID prescriptionrelated problems PRPs and 3 to identify patient characteristics associated with exposure to these potential PRPs Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 1 academic year using the electronic medical records of patients in the University Sains Malaysia USM primary care system The defined daily dose DDD methodology and the anatomical therapeutic chemical ATC drug classification system were used in the analysis and comparison of the data Statements representing potential NSAID PRPs were developed from authoritative drug information sources Then algorithms were developed to screen the databases for these potential PRPs Descriptive and comparative statistics were used to characterize DRPs Results: During the study period 12470 NSAID prescriptions were prescribed for 6509 patients mean SD = 192 183 This represented a prevalence of 35944 per 100000 patients or 36 Based on their DDDs mefenamic acid and diclofenac were the most prescribed NSAIDs 573 potential NSAID-related PRPs were observed in a cohort of 432 patients representing a prevalence of 6640 per 100000 NSAIDs users or 66 of all NSAID users Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with a Malay ethnic background p 0001 members of the staff p 0001 having 4 or more prescribers p 0001 or having 2 - 3 prescribers p = 002 and representing 4 or more long-term therapeutic groups LTTGs p 0001 or 2 - 3 LTTGs p 0001 were significantly associated with an increased chance of exposure to potential NSAIDrelated PRPs Conclusions: This is the first study in Malaysia that presents data on the prescribing pattern of NSAIDs and the characteristics of potential NSAID-related PRPs The prevalence of potential NSAID-related PRPs is frequent in the primary care setting Exposure to these PRPs is associated with specific sociodemographic and health status factors These results should help to raise the awareness of clinicians and patients about serious NSAID PRPs “Voice Conversion Using Pitch Shifting Algorithmby Time Stretching with PSOLA and Re-Sampling”http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/allam-mousa/article/ldquoVoice-Conversion-Using-Pitch-Shifting-Algorithmby-Time-Stretching-with-PSOLA-and-Re-SamplingrdquoPublished ArticlesVoice Conversion Using Pitch Shifting Algorithmby Time Stretching with PSOLA and Re-Sampling“Channel Estimation in OFDM System over Rician Fading Channel Based on Comb-Type Pilots Arrangement”http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/allam-mousa/article/ldquoChannel-Estimation-in-OFDM-System-over-Rician-Fading-Channel-Based-on-Comb-Type-Pilots-ArrangementrdquoPublished ArticlesChannel Estimation in OFDM System over Rician Fading Channel Based on Comb-Type Pilots ArrangementAccessibility Measures to Public Services in Palestinian Cities: The Case of Nablus Cityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Accessibility-Measures-to-Public-Services-in-Palestinian-Cities-The-Case-of-Nablus-CityGeneral Postshe distribution and planning of public services is considered one of the major objectives of city planning due to its direct relation with serving residents meeting their needs and their accessibility to these services The Palestinian cities in general and Nablus city in particular are suffering from the random distribution of public services without referring to the planning regulations that are based on population density and range of these services In addition there is a difficulty for the inhabitants of some residential districts especially the outer ones and the suburbs in accessibility to basic services like education and health The major aim of this thesis is to study and analyze the current situation of public services in Nablus City as a case study through the application of certain accessibility measures to these services The methodology of the study was based mainly on the descriptive and analytical methods using the available data and the field survey of public services as well as the results of the questionnaire distributed to a random sample in the city to measure the accessibility and determine the difficulties in access to these services The results of the study indicated that there is a medium degree of accessibility to public services for most districts in Nablus City except some suburbs like Kufr Qallil Zawata and Roujeeb which face difficulty in access to these services Also the results showed that there is a medium degree of difficulty in most districts and a high degree of difficulty in the suburbs to access to public hospitals For other services like public libraries banks and post office the results indicated that there is a medium degree of difficulty in access to such services from most of districts in the city The results of the study have referred the difficulty in access to public services in Nablus City to certain factors the most important being the long distance from public services traffic congestion and the absence of public transportation The study suggested providing certain public services in specified locations in the city of Nablus so that to cover the shortage in distribution of these services throughout the city; and to provide better accessibility for these services to the surrounding neighborhoods The study recommended the necessity of using the accessibility measures as a basic factor in the planning and distribution of public services in the city In addition it recommended the necessity of undertaking a traffic plan for arranging the transportation network and the provision of public transportation service in Nablus City Finally the study recommended the importance of preparing similar studies in other Palestinian cities on the regional scale including the city and its surroundings Full text available from: http:scholarnajaheducontentaccessibility-measures-public-services-palestinian-cities-case-nablus-city Aspects of A Traffic Safety Program in Palestinian Citieshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Aspects-of-A-Traffic-Safety-Program-in-Palestinian-CitiesGeneral PostsIn recent days limited efforts were applied to improve highway safety in Palestinian cities Establishing highway safety programs is essential to achieve this purpose The main component in such programs is planning The main process in the planning component is the collection of accident data to form the accident database Then the analysis of such database will identify the hazardous locations Effective countermeasures should then be applied at these hazardous locations These countermeasures should eliminate or minimize the hazards of these accidents Therefore the application of such highway safety program will result in safety improvements The police accident report form is the most important source to create the accident database A new comprehensive police accident report was designed in this study A new computer program \Accident\ based on Microsoft Access Software was also developed in this study This program is designed for a computerized data recording and tiling lt is user friendly It also provides options for data retrieval and analysis In this study the outline of the proposed safety program for Palestinian cities as discussed Accident data in this study were based upon accident records of years 1997 and 1998 for the Nablus City Threshold values for identifying hazardous locations were established based on these data According to the established threshold values Al-Hesba Intersection was one of the most hazardous locations in Nablus City A detailed study was conducted for this intersection Proper countermeasures were specified at this intersection such as retime signal police enforcement and repainting all pavement markings The results of this research showed that Palestinian cities are in dire need for the implementation of such a program Therefore developing the highway trafhc safety program in Palestine is recommended Full text available from: http:scholarnajaheducontentaspects-traffic-safety-program-palestinian-citiesCompliance of Access Management Techniques on Urban Arterials in Nablus Cityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Compliance-of-Access-Management-Techniques-on-Urban-Arterials-in-Nablus-CityGeneral PostsTransportation services provided in Palestine are inadequate to satisfy both the current and increasing demand for transportation Due to the increasing limitation of spaces and resources in most cities there has been a growing trend in the management of the existing traffic system rather than building new facilities Traffic management is a low cost improvement while constructing new facilities is capital-intensive and may be faced with the limitations of space and financial resources The objective of this project is to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of some access management measures on two urban arterials in Nablus City Proper evaluation was performed for Rafidia-Yaser Arafat Street and Faisal-Haifa Street The methodology of this research is based on the following items: i Review existing international access management processes ii Explain the functions and the importance of access management measures iii Collect the related access management data about the studied streets iv Select the steps techniques and adopt access management standards which suite the Palestinian cities v Evaluate the effect of these techniques on the street network vi Survey the public\s opinions on drivers pedestrians and business owners on the two studied arterials by doing face-to-face interviews with these groups The access management measures that will be discussed in this research address the following areas: intersection spacing driveway spacing median treatments and median openings turning lanes and auxiliary lanes street connections and parking management The main results of this study were: There are no specific guidelines or standards that are universally adopted for some access management measures The level of compliance of the arterials in Nablus City with access management measures is relatively acceptable It is difficult to apply access management measures on urban arterials especially near the CBD area where space is limited and the need for accessibility is high while it is much easier on rural arterials Closing some driveways and openings or prohibiting some movements improved traffic movements and level of service and reduce delay on the main arterial streets in Nablus City LOS for signalized intersections was improved from D-F to C-E The unsignalized intersections which operate at LOS F were improved to LOS C After the discussion of the applicability of access management strategies it is concluded that these measures can be applied on Nablus arterials For the two studied streets some measures are easily applied others can be applied with limited geometric improvements and some measures could not be applied because they need large space Full text available from: http:scholarnajaheducontentcompliance-access-management-techniques-urban-arterials-nablus-cityAnalysis and Short-Term Future Vision for the Transportation Plan in Jenin Cityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Analysis-and-Short-Term-Future-Vision-for-the-Transportation-Plan-in-Jenin-CityGeneral Posts There is a lack of urban and transportation planning in Jenin City This study addresses the short-term planning for the transportation systems in Jenin City to reach at appropriate solutions for the transportation problems in the city In addition the study addresses other detailed objectives for the various transportation systems in the city This study includes statistical data collection from its various sources and field surveys traffic volume studies parking studies and inventory studies The thesis includes a study of existing transportation systems description and evaluation traffic analysis of studied intersections capacity level of service and signalization The analysis includes existing and future conditions after five years which depend on projected number of vehicles based on natural population growth for Jenin City as the number of vehicles during the last ten years was not regularly registered and licensed The importance of this thesis is that there is a need for regularly conducting such studies every five years to update such plans taking into consideration several changes taking place in this city Most of these changes come from political and economical reasons in addition to the changing traffic conditions in the transportation network and the existing and proposed transportation systems resulted from the Jenin Master Plan Based on the analysis the study reached at several recommendations for the existing and proposed road network conditions which form the transportation master plan for the city The proposed changes include plans for the studied intersections and roadways parking public transportation truck routes pedestrian areas and the institutional structure The study concluded that only one intersection is warranted for signalization in the future which is An-Naffa Intersection Full Text: http:scholarnajaheducontentanalysis-and-short-term-future-vision-transportation-plan-jenin-city Impact of the Current Transportation System on Poverty in the West Bank (Case Study: Nablus)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Impact-of-the-Current-Transportation-System-on-Poverty-in-the-West-Bank-Case-Study-NablusGeneral Posts One of the stated objectives of various international development organizations is to reduce poverty through sustainable economic developmentTherefore the question is how can transport systems best contribute to poverty alleviation? There are no direct and easy answers for this question There are considerable changes in the transport system operations in the West Bank during the years of the Intifadah and due to the Israeli Occupation Authorities IOA measures on the road network So it is important to study the impact of the current transportation system on poverty and standards of living The primary objective of this study is to investigate the impact of current conditions of the transport system on the socio-economic aspects of the Palestinian life particularly poverty and quality of life in terms of transport accessibility expenditures on transport travel time and cost affordability of public transportation and access to markets and employment The methodology of this research is based a reviewing related studies at the local and international levels b surveying related existing conditions related transport and socio-economic indicators and c field surveying of transport and living conditions of selected communities Nablus City was taken as a case study in this project The main findings of this project are: 1 West Bank is facing great numbers of IOA measures which had a devastating impact on the life of Palestinian people economic social service and other sectors 2 Travel time and cost increase in the West Bank are results of closures and checkpoints which have lead to income decrease and high levels of poverty rates in the Palestinian society 3 Economic and social issues of the Palestinians have greatly been affected by these measures 4 Poverty rates have sharply increased during the years of the Intifadah due to multidimensional reasons of unemployment income decrease and inaccessibility to work opportunities 5 The field survey analysis indicates an increase in travel time and cost decrease in income change in home style increase in transport expenditure and difficulties in access to hospitals educational institutions and general services All were results of the closures regimes imposed by Israeli Occupation Forces IOF 6 Drivers were also affected by the imposed measures Less daily trips were made income has decreased vehicle maintenance frequency and cost has increased and travel routes have constantly been changed to pass by the IOF road blocks and closures 7 The Separation Wall has destructive effects on Palestinian life; isolating communities of each other inaccessibility to work places and access difficulties to social and service sites Based on these results it is recommended to continuously consider these closures in negotiating with the Israelis The Palestinian Authority should continue working hard to remove Israeli checkpoints Furthermore the Palestinian Authority should establish measures to counter these effects on Palestinians The Palestinian Ministry of Transport should also consider supporting the transport sector and re-establishing public transport fares to make the public transport more affordable Nablus City was hardly hit by these closures Therefore every effort should be made at the official level to encourage investment in the city to strengthen its economy and reduce these effects Full Text: impact_of_the_current_transportation_system_on_poverty_in_the_west_bank_case_study_nablus Application of Superpave System for Binder Selection Based on Local Conditionshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Application-of-Superpave-System-for-Binder-Selection-Based-on-Local-ConditionsGeneral PostsThis thesis generally aims to apply the Superpave system in West Bank regions This system was developed in the USA during period 1987- 1993 The temperature data for West Bank regions was obtained from Directorate of Meteorology at the Ministry of Transportation The latitude for each city was obtained from geographical maps The analysis of data showed that most of Palestinian areas require one Type of binder which is PG 64-10 excluding Jericho which requires PG 70-10 According to a study conducted in Jordan about the properties of local binders which is the same type of binder used in the West Bank it appeared that it has the same properties of PG 64-16 Therefore the local binder can be used in all West Bank regions excluding Jericho In this thesis several special cases were studied as such as slow traffic standing traffic and heavy traffic volume The optimum binders for these cases were determined accordingly Finally it is recommended to use Superpave system in the West Bank because it has better performance over the Marshall mix design as found by several studies Full Text Available from: http:scholarnajaheducontentapplication-superpave-system-binder-selection-based-local-conditions Modeling Relationship between Geometric Design Consistency and Road Safety for Two-Lane Rural Highways in the West Bankhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Modeling-Relationship-between-Geometric-Design-Consistency-and-Road-Safety-for-Two-Lane-Rural-Highways-in-the-West-BankGeneral PostsThe objectives of this study are to investigate and quantify the relationship between design consistency and road safety for two-lane highways in the West Bank This study produced speed prediction method using real time traffic speed data obtained from Google Earth maps which were used to estimate the 85th percentile speed along an alignment that includes both horizontal curve sections and tangent sections A comprehensive crash and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways has been used to investigate the effect of several design consistency measures on road safety Previous studies showed that the most promising consistency measures identified in previous research fall into four main categories namely: operating speed vehicle stability alignment indices and driver workload Five crash prediction models which relate design consistency to road safety have been examined The generalized linear regression approach has been used for model development All models adopted in this study showed acceptable levels of goodness of fit and over-dispersion The developed models verified that the main design consistency measures have an important impact on safety The consistency measures used in model development are: variation between the design speed and the operating speed absolute difference of the 85th percentile speeds between successive design elements difference between side friction supplied and demanded average radius of curvature average tangent length maximum radius of curvature to minimum radius of curvature curvature change rate ratio of individual curve radius to average radius of the section and visual demand of familiar drivers of the section Validation step was performed; the goal was not only to compare the accuracy of different models developed but also to evaluate the overall accuracy of Crash Prediction Models for use on rural two-lane highways in the West Bank Validation requirement was to demonstrate that a model is appropriate meaningful and useful for the purpose for which it is intended The models can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the impact of design consistency on road safety An application is presented where the effectiveness of crash prediction models which incorporate design consistency measures is compared with those which rely on geometric design characteristics The study concluded that models which explicitly consider design consistency can identify the inconsistencies more effectively and reflect the resulting impacts on safety more accurately than those which do not Finally a systematic approach to identify geometrically inconsistent locations using the safety consistency factor has been proposed Full text available from: http:scholarnajaheducontentmodeling-relationship-between-geometric-design-consistency-and-road-safety-two-lane-ruralReality of Road Safety Conditions at Critical Locations in Nablus City with a Road Map for Future Interventihttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-sahili/article/Reality-of-Road-Safety-Conditions-at-Critical-Locations-in-Nablus-City-with-a-Road-Map-for-Future-InterventiGeneral PostsNablus occupies the second level among the Palestinian Governorates for the frequency of traffic crashes while it was the first regarding the number of injuries resulting from traffic crashes during the years of this research which are 2009 2010 and 2011 This research aims to study the reality of traffic safety conditions at selected locations in the city of Nablus Traffic crash data was collected with information about injuries based on crash reports from the Police Directorate in Nablus city for the study period Data was collected at selected links and intersections in Nablus city which are known as main and important locations with relatively sensitivity of traffic compared with other locations in the city Analysis was done for several patterns of traffic conditions that may have an effect on traffic safety at these sensitive locations such as crash rate weather lighting road surface road geometry types and causes of crashes etc Studying the reality of traffic safety at these locations shows that certain conditions and patterns may contribute the level of safety Many results emanated from this thesis for example; pedestrian crashes form approximately 196 of crashes approximately 26 of all crashes involved by old drivers half of crashes on Al-Fatimah Intersection done during night lighting female drivers caused only 66 of crashes with 230 of crashes of the intersections of Rafeedia and Tunes Streets and no problem for pedestrians on Schools Street on the contrary with Rafeedia Street Full Text available from: http:scholarnajaheducontentreality-road-safety-conditions-critical-locations-nablus-city-road-mapfor-future This research and results form the road map for traffic crashes and road safety conditions studies in the city of Nablus at the selected strategic locations for improving the conditions of traffic safety to reduce the number of crashes and to protect citizens and their propertyThe missing Master of global sustainable development and Permaculturehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/elkhatib2011/article/The-missing-quotMaster-of-global-sustainable-development-and-Permaculturequot-8General PostsAssesment of the Palestinian University curricula contribution for the teaching of sustainable development: We consider that there is a missing Master of global sustainable development and permaculture in the Palestinian university programs in which students can recieve knowledge about the articulated questions of ethics ecology economy and culture Dr Naji El Khatib سكة حديد الدار البيضاء -- اسطنبول السريعة: طريق ازدهار واستقرار http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/massoud-eghbarieh/article/articleGeneral Posts على اثر انتصار الثورة العربية في مصر وتونس وليبيا في التخلص من أنظمة فاسدة وتابعة في جوهرها لقوى خارجية حيث نهلت شرعيتها منها ونهبت خيرات بلادها سنوات طويلة لخدمة مصالح تلك القوى الخارجية التي قد تكون معادية في جوهرها، وترسيخ الانتصار في انتخابات ديمقراطية تبعتها افرزت نجاح تيارات تدفع نحو الترابط الإسلامي والعربي وبين الناس جميعا من اجل الخير العام، واحتمال كبير لانتصار هذه الثورة في ولايات عربية أخرى مثل سوريا واليمن والبحرين ومناطق آخرى نشاهد أمامنا نمو نموذج تنموي فريد من نوعه بإتباعه يتحقق حلم مئات ملايين البشر بعد هذه الانتصارات التي وصفها بعض مشاركيها بأنها انتصارات إلهية،[1] فإن تحقيق أحلام لم يعد بعيدا وخاصة حين يتسلح الإنسان بالإيمان والإرادة والإقدام ووضوح الرؤيا وسلامة الهدف الجامع وبانتهاج أسلوب الزحف المليوني السلمي درءا للمفاسد، وإن لزم في حالات معينة كان زحف شعب مسلح متعاضد مثل ما حدث في ليبيا، لن نتردد بعد اليوم من طرح أفكار قد يراها البعض حلما وخاصة حين يكون السؤال ما العمل للحفاظ على تحقيق انتصارات حقيقية وإن كنا في بداية الطريق،وزيادة رقعة اتساعها في ولايات عربية أخرى من اجل الاستقرار والتقدم والازدهار والحصول على أهداف سامية في اقصر وقت ممكن [1] الدكتور صفوت حجازي شاهد على الثورة قناة الجزيرة برنامج يقدمه احمد منصور Applied Sociology or Clinical Sociology:where is the point?http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/elkhatib2011/article/Applied-Sociology-or-Clinical-Sociologywhere-is-the-pointGeneral PostsDR Naji El Khatib Some notes about my personal experience as a Sociologist 1 Applied Sociology or Clinical Sociology where is the point? As a scholar who received his sociological culture essentially in France my system of representations which allows me to define the significations to understand or predict the contents of a particular discipline is relatively influenced by this culture Thus the Applied Sociology in my primary perception has a negative connotation because it is assimilated to the quantitative instrumentalist sociology in service of some powerful socio-political forces Besides this culture fortunately I have my Anglo-Saxon sociological culture which help me to overcome these misunderstandings As an example after thinking about this subject critically I can surmount this unconstructive perception about the Applied Sociology and its paradigms I can admit that its richer than this restricted elementary perception I would like to clarify what I understand now by this discipline called Applied Sociology It is actually the connection that I establish between Applied Sociology and Clinical Sociology which I learned and will teach later I have to say that I was sensitized to this discipline through the Socio-analyze theory of Georges Lapassade a French sociologist whom I met after his retirement Later I attended the seminars of Rmi Hess disciple of G Lapassade who modified the Socio-analyze to the Institutional Analysis Beside Rmi Hess there has been also Ren Lourau And recently I worked with Marie-Louise Pellegrin within the Consortium of Euro-Mediterranean Universities CUEM whom elaborated the theory of the enunciative categories as the language categories which are not simply instruments of communication but mainly acts to perform the world and for that reason there is no intervention in the social field out of or apart from these categories In fact the Socio-analysis and the Institutional Analysis are both two sides of same coin: The Sociology of Intervention in the social fields This French sociology of intervention began with the Organizational Approach Michel Crozier; The Sociological Intervention Alain Touraine Franois Dubet ; The Socio-psychanalyse Grard Mendel ; The Psycho-social-intervention Jean Dubost Eugne Enriquez ; The Psycho-analysis of groups Groupal Psycho-dynamic Didier Anzieu Ren Kaes All these French schools participate in the creation of this Sociology of Intervention sociology of practice and maybe it is Eugne Enriquez who make more of connection between these tendencies of the French psycho-sociology with what we can qualify by a French clinical sociology His work about the clinic of the power articulated the unconscious dimension with life inside the institutions organizations and groups He analyzed the stakes of power ethics changes and sexuality in the intervention practices Now its a matter of fact that Applied and clinical sociologies are complementary approaches The employment of sociological perspectives and its tools in the understanding of the social life or the utilization of these perspectives to intervene to enhance to change some aspects of the Social are considered as what define the sociological practice as whole see the American definition for the Clinical and Applied sociologies below Otherwise to enlarge the horizons of sociological knowledge in the Palestinian university I work to introduce and disseminate the French sociology which is not well spread out because of the domination of Anglo-Saxon models and schools The Applied Sociology for me means a Clinical Sociology in the service of social intervention which is different from the social work According to my sociological French culture this branch of sociology treats the question from a utilitarian point of view: the sociological knowledge theories and methods of investigation help to shape the practical interventions on the field of action I myself practiced for more than 10 years this action of teaching-instructing teams of Intervenients intervening persons practitioners from social judicial and health sectors I worked with specialized educators judges of family affairs judges of teenagers delinquency problems school teachers policemen I treated with them from a sociological perspective the themes of their daily professional practices: family conflicts generation conflicts school failure violence against women youth violence drugs addictions associability etc In this context I used my sociological knowledge in the fields of sociology of family sociology of education legal-juridical sociology to teach-instruct these professional categories to perform their professional practices Its a sort of counseling critical reflection than a classical teaching This is a work of exchange around knowledge and experience theory and practice university and social life This exchange examines the viability of theories; re-write these theories according to social realities of daily life It could also be used to orient and reorient social policies expands the knowledge of decision-makers perform skills of practitioners with their clients etc In addition to the Anglo-Saxon sociologists Jane Addams Elizabeth J Clark John G Bruhn Lester F Ward Jan M Fritz Jonathan A Friedman others I used to exploit the work of the French sociologists as Georges Lapassade Alain Joxe my thesis directorMarie-Louise Pellegrin Jacqueline Barus-Michel and Ana-Maria Araujo my fellows in the Euro-Mediterranean University Consortium Eugne Enriquez Christoph Niewiadomski others ------------------------------------------------- An interesting critical contribution to the sociological analysis was performed by Professor Marie-Louise Pellegrin and by her colleagues of the Consortium of Euro-Mediterranean Universities CUEM conducted since 2002 in Italy Sicily The CUEM was initiated by Prof Pellegrin as an international and interdisciplinary think tank referring to linguistics anthropology and psychoanalysis Marie-Louise Pellegrin employ the concept of the \\\\\\\Analyzer\\\\\\\ by presenting the \\\\\\\minorities\\\\\\\ and the so-called \\\\\\\marginal\\\\\\\ as an analyzer of the whole Occidental societies This Analyzer is consider by her as a conceptual reference which reveal question analyze the \\\\\\\majority\\\\\\\ its certitudes and its untouchable criteria belonging to its extreme positivist visions To complete her critical approach of the Occidental thinking Professor Pellegrin pays more attention to the non-occidental thinking and especially to the Mediterranean philosophies and cultures to take her distance from the occidental categories of thoughts considered as universal once and for all Her rejection of the confinement in the only occidental culture seen as certain obvious superior advanced and complete concern also an ethical consideration which is necessary to appreciate the Other to understand him and to cohabite together in the mutual respect The other is conceived as the alter ego of the self that is to say the other-me Other is both my neighbor and a different topic from me Its the cohabitation between the proximity and the distance the familiarity and the strangeness This critical and ethical thinking take position concerning the questions related to the post-colonialism to the women issues and to gender theory http:cuemfreefr Clinical Sociology and Sociological Practice: The term sociological practice involves two areas clinical sociology and applied sociology Clinical sociology emphasizes hands-on intervention while applied sociology emphasizes research for practical purposes Both specialties require different kinds of specialized training Some sociological practitioners are clinical in that they only or primarily do intervention work; others are applied in that they only or primarily conduct research that is of practical interest Some practitioners do both Clinical sociologists for instance may conduct research before beginning an intervention project to assess the existing state of affairs during an intervention eg to study the process of adaptation andor after the completion of the intervention to evaluate the outcome of that intervention For some clinical sociologists the research activity is an important part of their own clinical work These sociologists have appropriate research training and look for opportunities to conduct research Other clinical sociologists prefer to concentrate on the interventions and leave any research to other team members Those clinical sociologists who decide not to engage in research may have research skills but prefer to conduct interventions may not have enough expertise in the conduct of research or may know that other team members have more expertise in research http:edulearnsocorgالتعددية: المنقذ من الجمود ، د.ناجي الخطيبhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/elkhatib2011/article/article-8General Posts Monday October 30 2006 عرض لكتاب للدكتور ناجي الخطيب مركز الخدمة المجتمعية في جامعة النجاح الوطنية نابلس ـ فلسطين يصدر كتاباً بعنوان \ التعددية: المنقذ من الجمود \ تأليف دناجي الخطيب Dr Naji El Khatib Pluralisme et Interdisciplinarit en SciencesSociales et Humaines : Contre la stagnation de la pense صدر في سبتمبر 2006 عن مركز الخدمة المجتمعية التابع لجامعة النجاح الوطنية كتاب بعنوان \التعددية: المنقذ من الجمود\ للدكتور ناجي الخطيب الأستاذ الزائر في جامعة النجاح، ويركز الكتاب حول التعددية المعرفية وتداخل الحقول والمناهج في العلوم الاجتماعية والإنسانية ويأتي إصدار هذا الكتاب في إطار مشروع التعاون القائم ما بين الجامعة و \معهد مدفيل للدراسات الإنسانية\، حيث شمل التعاون كذلك تأسيس وحدة التدريب المجتمعي في جامعة النجاح الوطنية وعدداً من الدورات التدريبية لقد جاء الكتاب في ثمانية فصول إضافة إلى مقدمة وتعقيب وملحق للوثائق وفي مقدمته للكتاب أكد الكاتب أن الأطروحة المركزية للكتاب تتلخص بالقول بأن السطحية والتعميم والانتقائية التي تطبع عدداً من الأدبيات الاجتماعية والإنسانية العربية إنما تعود إلى تقوقعها على الذات وتغييبها السؤال الفلسفي المتعدد\ و\المتنوع\ في خضم حوار بنّاء مع الثقافات المعاصرة على اختلاف مشاربها أما الفصول الثمانية فقد جاءت تحت العناوين التالية: الفصل الأول: إشكالات التقاطع والتداخل والعبور ما بين العلوم الاجتماعية والإنسانية المختلفة الفصل الثاني: إشكالات التقاطع والتداخل بين العلوم الاجتماعية والعلوم الطبيعية الدقيقة الفصل الثالث: علوم الآثار ما بين علوم التاريخ والسوسيولوجيا والأنثروبولوجيا والعلوم الدقيقة الفصل الرابع: الداروينية والعلوم الاجتماعية والإنسانية الفصل الخامس: علم النفس الاجتماعي: التعددية الحقلية والمناهجية ما بين العلوم الإنسانية والاجتماعية الفصل السادس: الدراسات الثقافية: التعددية الحقلية والمناهجية الفصل السابع: علم اجتماع الصراع والاستراتيجيا والعتددية الحقلية والمناهجية الفصل الثامن: علم اجتماع الصراعات والاستراتيجيات في الحقل العربي والتعددية الحقلية والمنهجية يطلب الكتاب من مركز الخدمة المجتمعية - جامعة النجاح الوطنية csc@najahedu smkilani@najahedu سعر النسخة: للأفراد 20 شيكل للمؤسسات 30 شيكل كما يطلب من\ معهد مدفيل للدراسات الإنسانية MedFil Humanities Institute-Paris France medfil2@gmailcom بدون \"التسويق\" يعني الرجوع بتاريخ التطور الاقتصادي إلى مرحلة الماقبل- رأسماليةhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp-2025/article/-quotquot----------General Postsإن الحديث عن أهمية التسويق كأحد الحقول المتخصصة في العلوم التجارية لا يعتبر محل معارضة أدبية، بل أصبح التسويق نشاط حيوي يمس كافة جوانب الحياة الاقتصادية والاجتماعية، فهذا النشاط يعنى بخلق التكيف والانسجام ما بين المنظمات بأفرادها ومنتجاتها وفلسفاتها مع واقعها البيئي ففي مجال السياسة مثلاً، تخصص الدول الكبرى مئات الملايين من الدولارات سنوياً لتسويق سياساتها الداخلية والخارجية، وتخصص الأحزاب السياسية جهوداً وأموالاً كثيرة لتسويق أفكارها ومرشحيها لنيل ثقة الجمهور وبعض المجتمعات خسرت الحرب بدون معركة بسبب الدعاية النفسية وكذلك في مجال الاقتصاد أيضا، يساعد التسويق على ضمان تدفق سلس لعوامل الإنتاج، فهو يساهم في زيادة فاعلية العلاقة بين أصحاب الفوائض وأصحاب العجوزات المالية، وبهذا المعني يعمل التسويق على انفتاح النظم وتفاعلها من هنا، لم يكن بالإمكان تصور الرقي والتطور الذي وصلت إليه المجتمعات الحديثة لو لا وجود المنافسة، وهنا يأتي التسويق كفلسفة وعمل ليغذي هذه المنافسة بما يوسع الخيارات أمام المستهلك ويساهم في تطوير وعيه ويحفز المنتجين على ابتكار الأفضل وقد تطور التسويق المنافسة مع تطور أنماط الإنتاج من التشكيلات الماقبل- رأسمالية والتي تضم الإنتاج البدائي، والخراجي، والعبودي، والسلعي البسيط إلى الرأسمالية، وهكذا فقد كان للتسويق دوراً محدوداً تصاعد خلال المرحلة التي تلت الثورة الصناعية ليعبّر عن بدء المنافسة، والذي يعني أن النظم الإنتاجية السابقة للرأسمالية هي نظم غير تنافسية، وبالتالي أهمل فيها الدور التسويقي بمفهومه الحديث والآن، إن إمكانية تطور اقتصاد حديث بدون التسويق يعني الرجوع بتاريخ التطور الاقتصادي إلى مرحلة الماقبل- رأسمالية، وعلى أقل تقدير إلى مرحلة ما يعرف بالمركنتيلية والممتدة من القرن السادس عشر وحتى الثورة الصناعية القرن التاسع عشر وعلى أية حال، إن الحديث عن أهمية التسويق والمنافسة بهذه الطريقة، لا يلغي ضرورة وجود قوانين وأنظمة تعالج الاحتكارات، والتوسع اللامحدود للتكتلات الاقتصادية The International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research, California, USA 2010http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/halzabadi/article/khjdshvcd-dskicgdskchgsd-kcdsklGeneral PostsAlthough not physically presented theresearch abstract has been published in the textbook of the conference and An-Najah National University-School of Medicine was listed under the participants list see link below and then under the participants list on the top right: http:omicsonlineorgbiomarkers2010biomarkersscientificprogramme1php The abstract is published in page 45 in the conference textbook link below: http:wwwomicsonlineorgbiomarkers2010digitalbookdigitalbookhtmlBook \\"A Short Course on Group Theory\\"http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/Book-quotA-Short-Course-on-Group-TheoryquotGeneral Posts Introductory Course on Group Theory and Chemical Applications 4300 Authors: Hikmat S Hilaland Abed Al-Hafez Sayda An-Najah N University West Bank Palestine Book Description: Group theory is conventionally taught in a one-semester course at the seniorgraduate level for science students For such a purpose many textbooks dealing with rigors of derivations and theorems have been written to give in-depth treatment For one reason or another scientists with no prior knowledge of group theory may need quick familiarity with the subject without mathematical derivation rigors This book has been written for this purpose The book is based on lecture notes given to seniorgraduate students who need to deal with bonding theories and spectroscopy without pre-knowledge of group theory Imprint: Novinka Table of Contents: Preface: Chapter 1: Symmetry Elements and Symmetry Operations Chapter 2: Symmetry Point Groups Chapter 3: Representations and Character Tables Chapter 4: Application to Chemical Bonding Chapter 5: Application to Vibrational Spectra Appendices: Appendix A: Introduction to Matrices Appendix B: Character Tables for Common Point Groups Index Series: Chemistry Research and Applications Binding: ebook Pub Date: 2011 1st quarter Pages: 6 x 9 NBC - C ISBN: 978-1-61122-281-4 Status: FP Status Code Description AN Announcing FM Formatting PP Page Proofs FP Final Production EP Editorial Production PR At Prepress AP At Press AV Available Available Options: Version: Download: Windows - English Recipient of PFDP Teaching Excellence Award 2010http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-jaber/article/Recipient-of-PFDP-Teaching-Excellence-Award-2010General PostsOn July 26th 2010 Professor Sami Al-Jaber from the Department of Physics at the University has been selected as the recipient of the PFDP Teaching Excellence Award for the year 2010 Professor Al-Jaber was a professor of Theoretical Physics and the Dean of Graduate Studies between 2002-2004 at An-Najah Dean of the Faculty of Science 2004-2007 and Dean of Scientific Research between 2007-2009 He was also granted An-Najah Research Award in 2007 He obtained a PhD in Theoretical Physics from the Southern Illinois University Carbondale Illinois USA in august 1991الوقاية من لدغات الافاعي والاسعافات الاولية للمصابين http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/2396131/article/article-6General Posts1 نظرا\ لبدء فصل الصيف وإرتفاع درجات الحرارة ونظرا\ لازدياد حالات لدغات الأفاعي وشح العلاج الخاص بها في المنطقة، فأننا نهيب بكم إجراء ما يمكنكم من أجل الحد من حدوث الاصابات وذلك بالقضاء على الاسباب التي بدورها جذب الأفاعي الى الأماكن السكنية وبالذات الفئران ومخلفات الأطعمة وكذلك ازالة الاشواك وغيرها من المقتنيات من جوانب الطرق لمنع اختباء الافاعي تحتها 2 الاسعافات الأولية في حالة لدغة الأفعى بناءً على أحدث التوصيات العالمية وقاعدة بيانات مركز السموم هي كما يلي a غسل مكان اللدغة بالماء لكي لا يدخل السم الموجود خارج الجرح الى داخله b لا مانع من ترك مكان اللدغة ينزف لمدة لا تتجاوز الدقيقة لخروج بعض السم ومن ثم يجب الضغط على مكان اللدغة لايقاف النزيف c عدم تحريك المصاب وعدم السماح له بالمشي أو الركض وعدم اعطاؤه أية أدوية d نقل المصاب الى أقرب مركز صحي 3 استخدم الناس في الماضي عدة وسائل للاسعاف الأولي أثبتت الدراسات ضررها وعدم فائدتها لذا ننصح بعدم استعمالها وهي كما يلي: a جرح مكان اللدغة ومص السم: طريقة خاطئة نظرا لقلة فائدتها وكثرة مضاعفاتها b وضع الثلج على الجرح: طريقة خاطئة بسبب جعلها السم يتركز في مكان محدود مما يؤدي الى تدمير الانسجة في ذلك المكان c ربط قبل وأو بعد مكان اللدغة: ممنوعة لعدم فعاليتها ولمضاعفاتها الجانبية 4 لوحظ أن بعض النباتات السامة موجودة في المتنزهات ومنها نبات الدفلة Oleander وست الحسن Atropa belladona وهذة النباتات سامة للجميع وبخاصة للأطفال نظرا\ لطبيعتهم الاستكشافية وتواجدهم بكثرة في هذة الأماكن، وكذلك هناك نمو لنبتة قفاز الثعلب Foxglove بشكل تلقائي على أطراف الشوارع جميع النباتات المذكورة جميلة المنظر ولكنها سامة، لذا نرجو من طواقم البلديات والمسؤولين في الوطن التخلص منها واستبدالها بنباتات غير سامة في حال وجود استفسارات بهذا الخصوص فيمكنكم الاتصال على مركز السموم والمعلومات الدوائية في جامعة النجاح الوطنية على الرقم المجاني 1800-500-000 لماذا مؤتمر يوم القدس الحادي عشر؟http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp-2014/article/article-15General Postsعندما تتصدى كلية الآداب في جامعة النجاح الوطنية لعقد مؤتمر يوم القدس فهذا يعني الكثير على مستوى الجامعة أولا،والكلية ثانيا،فكلية الآداب التي عقدت النية والعزم على على عقد مؤتمر يوم القدس في كل عام تضع المدينة المقدسة على سلم الأولويات في نشاطاتها اللامنهجية،وتضع للقدسفي بؤرة الاهتمام بالنسبة للأكاديمين الفلسطينين والعرب،وقد تناولتمؤتمرات يوم القدس العشر التي عقدت في الكلية عدة مواضيع على قدر كبير من الأهمية،فقد تناولت تاريخ المدينة المقدسة قديما وحديثا،والآثار الاسلامية فيها،وقبة الصخرة،والمسجد الأقصى،والفتح الاسلامي والوضع القانوني للمدينة تحت الاحتلال والهيكل المزعوم والاستيطان،الى غير ذلك من الموضوعاتالتي تخص المدينة والتي تناولها الباحثون الفلسطينيون والعرب في أبحاثهم التي قدموها في هذه المؤتمراتالمؤسسات المجتمعية والمدنية الى أين؟؟http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_1305/article/article-17General Postsيدور هذا المقال حول اهمية المؤسسات المدنية، وحول الصعوبات والتحديات التي تواجهها وتقدم الكاتبة بعض الحلول لتلك الصعوبات34- Eighth SESAME users' meeting, Petra, Jordan, 19-21 November, 2009.http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ghassan-saffarini/article/34-Eighth-SESAME-users-meeting-Petra-Jordan-19-21-November-2009General Posts Eighth SESAME users meeting Petra Jordan 19-21 November 2009 RAK CAM-RasAlkhaymah Center for Asdvanced Materialshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/RAK-CAM-RasAlkhaymah-Center-for-Asdvanced-MaterialsGeneral PostsIWAM 2010 RAK-CAMRasalKhayma2010 Preparation characterization modification and application of nano-sized cadmium chalcogenide thin-films: enhancement of light conversion efficiency and stability Hikmat S Hilal and Iyad Saadeddin An-Najah N University Nablus West Bank Palestine Tel: 970-9-2945507 Fax:970-9-2387982 E-Mail: hikmathilal@yahoocom The work described here has been done in collaboration with: Rania Ismail Amer El-Hamouz Huda Sabri Subhi Saleh Maysaa Atatri Ahed Zyoud Ghazi Nour Mosa El-Hasan Israa Hamdan Abstract: In earlier studies we demonstrated new simple techniques to modify characteristics of monolithic semiconductor electrodes such as n-Si and n-GaAs in light-to-electricity conversions A combination of two methods namely: cooling rate and coverage with electro-active ions simultaneously enhanced both conversion efficiency and stability of the electrodes Due to preparation difficulty and high cost of highly pure monolithic electrodes research has recently been focused on thin-film semi-conducting SC material electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition CBD However such thin-film electrodes suffer low efficiency of conversion and low stability under photo-electrochemical PEC conditions More research is thus needed to modify thin-film electrodes for future PEC applications To enhance efficiency and stability of new CBD-based thin-film SC electrodes we employed our earlier techniques cooling rate and electro-active species attachment to cadmium chalcogenide CdX: where X = S or Se thin-film electrodes The results are encouraging Both electrode efficiency and stability of CdS electrodes have been significantly enhanced Moreover CBD-based CdSe films which have not been described before in PEC systems has been prepared here and stabilized for the first time ever In this presentation details of preparation modification characterization electronic absorption spectra fluorescence spectra XRD and SEM results and PEC characteristic will be described Future perspectives of commercializing these results will also be discussed Key words: Solar energy CdS CdSe thin film electrodes References: 1 H S Hilal M Masoud S Shakhshir N Jisrawi n-GaAs Band-edge repositioning by modification with metalloporphyrinpolysiloxane matrices Active and Passive Electronic Components 26 2003 1 2 H S Hilal M Masoud S Shakhshir and N Jisrawi Metalloporphyrinpolysiloxane modified n-GaAs surfaces: Effect on PEC efficiency and surface stability J Electroanal Chem 527 2002 47-55 3 H S Hilal I Sadeddin S Saleh Elisabeth Sellier and G Campet Modification of n-Si characteristics by annealing and cooling at different rates Active and Passive Electronic Components 26 2003 213 4 H S Hilal S Saleh I Sadeddin and G Campet \Effect of Annealing and Cooling Rates on n-GaAS Electrode Photoelectrochemical Characteristics\ Active and Passive Electronic Components 272 2004 69-80 5 H S Hilal W Ateereh T Al-Tel R Shubaitah I Sadeddin and G Campet Enhancement of n-GaAs characteristics by combined heating cooling rate and metalloporphyrin modification techniques Solid State Sciences 6 2004139-146 6 J Portier H S HILAL I SAADEDDIN S J HWANG and G Campet THERMODYNAMIC CORRELATIONS AND BAND GAP CALCULATIONS IN METAL OXIDES Progress in Solid State Chemistry 32 20045 207 7 H S Hilal and J A Turner CONTROLLING CHARGE-TRANSFER PROCESSES AT SEMICONDUCTORLIQUID JUNCTIONS Electrochimica Acta 51 2006 64876497 8 Hikmat S Hilal Rania M A Ismail and Amer El-Hamouz \ Effect of cooling rate of pre-annealed CdS thin film electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition: Enhancement of photo-electrochemical characteristics Electrochemica Acta 54 2009 34333440 9 Hikmat S Hilal Huda Sabri Iyad Sadeddin Ahed Zyoud and Subhi Saleh Photoelectrochemical processes based on FTOCdSe electrodes prepared by CBD: new techniques to stabilize CdSe electrodes Unpublished data 2009 10 Hikmat S Hilal Maysaa Jararah Musa Hassan Iyad Saadeddin Preparation characterization and stabilization of Zn-doped CdS thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical processes Unpublished data 2009 إلهام فلسطين ...؟ http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_1305/article/article-15General Postsتعريف ببرنامج إلهام فلسطين وتطلعات من اجل تطويره وشموله جميع اطراف العملية التربوية من مؤسسات حكومية ومدنيةhemical bath deposited CdSe nano-scale thin films for light-to-electricity conversion: a new approach to enhance efficiency and stabilityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/hemical-bath-deposited-CdSe-nano-scale-thin-films-for-light-to-electricity-conversion-a-new-approach-to-enhance-efficiency-and-stabilityGeneral Posts THE 2ND ISESCO INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP AND CONFERENCE ON NANOTECHNOLOGY 2010 ICWN 2010 25 th 27th January 2010 Nanotechnology in Energy Materials and Health Sekretariat ICWN2010 Pusat Pengajian Fizik Gunaan Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi Selangor Malaysia Chemical bath deposited CdSe nano-scale thin films for light-to-electricity conversion: a new approach to enhance efficiency and stability Hikmat S Hilal Iyad Sadeddin Huda Sabri Subhi Saleh and Ahed Zyoud Department of Chemistry An-Najah N University Nablus West Bank Palestine Fax: 970-9-2387982 E-mail: hikmathilal@yahoocom Abstract: In earlier studies we demonstrated new simple techniques to modify characteristics of monolithic semiconductor electrodes such as n-Si and n-GaAs in light-to-electricity conversions A combination of two methods namely: cooling rate and coverage with electro-active ions embedded inside polymer matrices simultaneously enhanced both conversion efficiency and stability of the electrodes Due to preparation difficulty and high cost of highly pure monolithic electrodes research has recently been focused on thin-film semi-conducting SC material electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition CBD However such thin-film electrodes suffer low efficiency of conversion and low stability under photo-electrochemical PEC conditions More research is thus needed to modify thin-film electrodes for future PEC applications To enhance efficiency and stability of new CBD-based thin-film SC electrodes we employed our earlier techniques cooling rate and electro-active species attachment to CdSe thin-film electrodes CBD-based CdSe films which have not been described before in PEC systems were prepared here and stabilized for the first time ever In this presentation details of preparation modification characterization and PEC characteristic will be described Future perspectives of commercializing these results will also be discussed References: 1 H S Hilal M Masoud S Shakhshir N Jisrawi n-GaAs Band-edge repositioning by modification with metalloporphyrinpolysiloxane matrices Active and Passive Electronic Components 262003 1 [UK English] 2 H S Hilal M Masoud S Shakhshir and N Jisrawi Metalloporphyrinpolysiloxane modified n-GaAs surfaces: Effect on PEC efficiency and surface stability J Electroanal Chem 527 200247-55 [Elsevier Netherland English] 3 H S Hilal I Sadeddin S Saleh Elisabeth Sellier and G Campet Modification of n-Si characteristics by annealing and cooling at different rates Active and Passive Electronic Components 26 2003 213 [in English] 4 H S Hilal S Saleh I Sadeddin and G Campet \Effect of Annealing and Cooling Rates on n-GaAS Electrode Photoelectrochemical Characteristics\ Active and Passive Electronic Components 272 2004 69-80 [in English] 5 H S Hilal W Ateereh T Al-Tel R Shubaitah I Sadeddin and G Campet Enhancement of n-GaAs characteristics by combined heating cooling rate and metalloporphyrin modification techniques Solid State Sciences 6 2004139-146 [Elsevier English] 6 J Portier H S HILAL I SAADEDDIN S J HWANG and G Campet THERMODYNAMIC CORRELATIONS AND BAND GAP CALCULATIONS IN METAL OXIDES Progress in Solid State Chemistry 32 20045 207 7 H S Hilal and J A Turner CONTROLLING CHARGE-TRANSFER PROCESSES AT SEMICONDUCTORLIQUID JUNCTIONS Electrochimica Acta 51 2006 64876497 8 Hikmat S Hilal Rania M A Ismail and Amer El-Hamouz \ Effect of cooling rate of pre-annealed CdS thin film electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition: Enhancement of photo-electrochemical characteristics Electrochemica Acta 54 2009 34333440 9 Hikmat S Hilal Huda Sabri Iyad Sadeddin Ahed Zyoud and Subhi Saleh Photoelectrochemical processes based on FTOCdSe electrodes prepared by CBD: new techniques to stabilize CdSe electrodes Unpublished data 2009 10 Hikmat S Hilal Maysaa Atatreh Musa Hassan Iyad Saadeddin Preparation characterization and stabilization of Zn-doped CdS thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical processes Unpublished data 2009 11 Hikmat S Hilal Ghazi Nour Ahed Zyoud Muath H Helal and Iyad sadeddin accepted Solid State Sciences 2009 Editorial Board member - Journal of Modern Physics (JMP)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-jaber/article/Editorial-Board-member---Journal-of-Modern-Physics-JMPGeneral PostsProf Sami M AL-Jaber - Editorial Board member for Journal of Modern physics JMPSwine Influenza A viruse (H1N1)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/adwan2372/article/Swine-Influenza-A-viruse-H1N1General PostsNo abstractPreparation, characterization, modification and application of thin-film cadmium chalcogenide semiconductors: enhancement of solar conversion efficiency and stabilityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/Preparation-characterization-modification-and-application-of-thin-film-cadmium-chalcogenide-semiconductors-enhancement-of-solar-conversion-efficiency-and-stabilityGeneral Posts Palestine Polytechnic University PPU 2nd International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable Development November 10-12 2009 Hikmat S Hilal and colleagues Departmenet of Chemistry Najah University Abstract: In earlier studies we demonstrated new simple techniques to modify characteristics of monolithic semiconductor electrodes such as n-Si and n-GaAs in light-to-electricity conversions A combination of two methods namely: cooling rate and coverage with electro-active ions embedded inside polymer matrices simultaneously enhanced both conversion efficiency and stability of the electrodes Due to preparation difficulty and high cost of highly pure monolithic electrodes research has recently been focused on thin-film semi-conducting SC material electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition CBD However such thin-film electrodes suffer low efficiency of conversion and low stability under photo-electrochemical PEC conditions More research is thus needed to modify thin-film electrodes for future PEC applications To enhance efficiency and stability of new CBD-based thin-film SC electrodes we employed our earlier techniques cooling rate and electro-active species attachment to cadmium chalcogenide CdX: where X = S or Se thin-film electrodes The results are encouraging Both electrode efficiency and stability of CdS electrodes have been significantly enhanced Moreover CBD-based CdSe films which have not been described before in PEC systems has been prepared here and stabilized for the first time ever In this presentation details of preparation modification characterization electronic absorption spectra fluorescence spectra XRD and SEM results and PEC characteristic will be described Future perspectives of commercializing these results will also be discussed Nanotechnology activities in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/Nanotechnology-activities-in-palestineGeneral PostsA Note from Hikmat S Hilal A survey on nanotechnology research activities in Palestine is needed by Arab nanotechnology Association I have been consulted a number of colleagues at Palestinian Universities in West Bank and Gaza Strip I have received some data from a number of colleagues but I still need to know more about ongoing activities I appeal to colleagues to send me information about nanotech research activities being conducted in Palestine My e-mail address is: hikmathilal@yahoocom Waiting to hearing from you Hikmat Nano-scale thin film enhancement http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/Nano-scale-thin-film-enhancement-General PostsA Note from Hikmat S Hilal In one lecture Dr Sami El-Shal pointed out that microwave heating gives better control of shape and size of nanoparticle that are prepared as colloidal particles The question that comes out here is: can this technique be used to control shape and size of nano-scale polycrystals in thin films for the purpose of photovoltaic applications? We will try this technique at Najah N University Surface modification of semiconductor electrodes by metalloporphyrine ions: enhancement of band edge positions, stability and conversion efficiency in PEC processeshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/Surface-modification-of-semiconductor-electrodes-by-metalloporphyrine-ions-enhancement-of-band-edge-positions-stability-and-conversion-efficiency-in-PEC-processes-1General PostsAbstract submitted to CIMTEC conference 5th FORUM ON NEW MATERIALSMontecatini Terme Italy to be heldJune 13-18 2010 Symposium FG-1 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion: Materials andTechnology Challenges Surface modification of semiconductor electrodes by metalloporphyrine ions: enhancement of band edge positions stability and conversion efficiency in PEC processes Hikmat S Hilal Department of Chemistry An-Najah N University PO Box 7 Nablus Palestine Fax: 970-9-2387982 E-mail: hikmathilal@yahoocom Participants: Moayyad Masoud Wajdi Ateerih Samar Shakhshir Huda Sabri Maysaa Atatreh Iyad Saadeddin Ahed Zyoud Subhi Salih Mousa El-Hasan and others Abstract: Narrow band semiconductors are suitable catalysts for visible light-to-electricity conversions under photo-electrochemical PEC conditions but are unstable to such conditions Simple techniques have been developed to stabilize n-GaAS electrodes in PEC experiments Porphyirinatomanganese MnP as mixture of two different oxidation numbers MnII and MnIII complexes were chemically anchored to the electrode surface via anchoring ligands The modified n-GaAs electrodes showed enhanced conversion efficiencies Moreover the band edge positions were shifted toward more positive potentials This was manifested in photo current vs potential curves and in Mott-Schottky plots However the anchoring ligands and the attached ions peeled away from the electrode surface and the electrode stability could not be permanently retained by this technique A better technique was then developed Metalloporphyrine complexes embedded inside polysiloxane matrices were attached to n-GaAs electrodes The resulting n-GaAsPolysiloxaneMnP electrode systems showed enhanced conversion efficiency and stability at the same time The results are rationalized based on ability of the MnP system to behave as redox couple that catalyzes charge transfer at the electrodeliquid interface The technique is useful for other mono-lithic narrow band gap semiconductor electrodes such as n-GaInP2 Results on using this technique other types of semiconductor electrodes will also be presented Surface modification of semiconductor electrodes by metalloporphyrine ions: enhancement of band edge positions, stability and conversion efficiency in PEC processeshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/hikmat-hilal/article/Surface-modification-of-semiconductor-electrodes-by-metalloporphyrine-ions-enhancement-of-band-edge-positions-stability-and-conversion-efficiency-in-PEC-processesGeneral PostsAbstract submitted to CIMTEC conference 5th FORUM ON NEW MATERIALSMontecatini Terme Italy to be heldJune 13-18 2010 Symposium FG-1 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion: Materials andTechnology Challenges Surface modification of semiconductor electrodes by metalloporphyrine ions: enhancement of band edge positions stability and conversion efficiency in PEC processes Hikmat S Hilal Department of Chemistry An-Najah N University PO Box 7 Nablus Palestine Fax: 970-9-2387982 E-mail: hikmathilal@yahoocom Participants: Moayyad Masoud Wajdi Ateerih Samar Shakhshir Huda Sabri Maysaa Atatreh Iyad Saadeddin Ahed Zyoud Subhi Salih Mousa El-Hasan and others Abstract: Narrow band semiconductors are suitable catalysts for visible light-to-electricity conversions under photo-electrochemical PEC conditions but are unstable to such conditions Simple techniques have been developed to stabilize n-GaAS electrodes in PEC experiments Porphyirinatomanganese MnP as mixture of two different oxidation numbers MnII and MnIII complexes were chemically anchored to the electrode surface via anchoring ligands The modified n-GaAs electrodes showed enhanced conversion efficiencies Moreover the band edge positions were shifted toward more positive potentials This was manifested in photo current vs potential curves and in Mott-Schottky plots However the anchoring ligands and the attached ions peeled away from the electrode surface and the electrode stability could not be permanently retained by this technique A better technique was then developed Metalloporphyrine complexes embedded inside polysiloxane matrices were attached to n-GaAs electrodes The resulting n-GaAsPolysiloxaneMnP electrode systems showed enhanced conversion efficiency and stability at the same time The results are rationalized based on ability of the MnP system to behave as redox couple that catalyzes charge transfer at the electrodeliquid interface The technique is useful for other mono-lithic narrow band gap semiconductor electrodes such as n-GaInP2 Results on using this technique other types of semiconductor electrodes will also be presented Web 2.0 Collaborative Technologies to Construct Knowledge in a Learning Centered Approach Using Learner-Created Content Method http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/maher-arafat/article/Web-20-Collaborative-Technologies-to-Construct-Knowledge-in-a-Learning-Centered-Approach-Using-Learner-Created-Content-Method--On Going ResearchesWeb 20 Collaborative Technologies to Construct Knowledge Using Learner-Created Content Method in a Learning Centered ApproachEffects of different strategies of protein feedings on performance and visceral organ mass of Awassi lambshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effects-of-different-strategies-of-protein-feedings-on-performance-and-visceral-organ-mass-of-Awassi-lambsOn Going Researches Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different crude protein CP feeding strategies on the general performance feed intake and visceral organs weights of Awassi lambs Forty eight male Awassi lambs were used in this experiment Lambs were divided into four experimental groups with twelve lambs in each Lambs were fed individually and each was considered as a replicate Lambs in groups 1 2 and 3 were fed with 120 160 and 180 gkg CP diets respectively However lambs in group 4 were fed with a diet of a decreasing level of protein starting from 200 gkg for the first month then a 20 gkg CP reduction month for the following three months At the end of the feeding trial five lambs from each replicate were killed for the visceral organs investigation Results showed that body weight gain in lambs was the same among protein levels in the first 6 weeks of feeding After that lambs on the decreasing level of protein had more P005 total weight gain compared to other treatments A similar trend was observed regarding feed intake Lambs on the decreasing protein diet consumed more feed P005 compared to lambs in other groups Levels of protein had variable effects on the visceral organs mass The cost of gain was the best P005 in lambs fed with the decreasing level of protein Key words: Awassi lambs average daily gain feed conversion ratio visceral organs economic value مفهوم التربية الإعلامية في كتب التربية المدنية والتربية الوطنية للمرحلة الأساسية في المنهاج الفلسطيني http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/aliaassali/article/article-10On Going Researchesحققت هذه الدراسة أهدافها في اجابتها على ثلاث أسئلة للتعرف على مصادر الاعلام التي استعرضتها كتب التربية المدنية والتربية الوطنية، والوظائف الإعلامية التي تناولتها تلك الكتب، و الدور الذي قامت به التربية الاعلامية المتضمنه في هذه الكتب لاعداد شخصية المتعلم واكسابه المهارات الاعلامية اذ اظهرت النتائج تركيز الاهتمام بمصادر الاعلام المقروءة في كتب التربية المدنية لصفوف السابع والثامن والتاسع، والمصادر المرئية في كتب التربية الوطنية لصفوف الخامس والسادس والسابع الاساسية وهذه النتائج تشير الى تناول كتب التربية المدنية وكتب التربية الوطنية للتربية الاعلامية ليس ممنهجا لذلك فان الباحثتان توصيان واضعي المنهاج لتضمين كتب التربية المدنية والتربية الوطنية والمواد الدراسة بأنشطة تتعلق بالتربية الإعلامية وبشكل ممنهج Synthesis of Swellable Tris (2-aminoethyl) amine Functionalized Polymer Microspheres and Study of their Optical Sensing Properties http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/abushqair-2375/article/Synthesis-of-Swellable-Tris-2-aminoethyl-amine-Functionalized-Polymer-Microspheres-and-Study-of-their-Optical-Sensing-Properties-On Going ResearchesIbrahim Abu-Shqair Ziad Shakhsher and Hanin Qasem An optical chemical sensor based on polymer swelling and shrinking will be studied by way of optical transmission Tris 2-aminoethyl amine-polymer will be synthesized The sensing Polymer will be formed from poly vinylbenzylchloride Tris 2-aminoethyl amine by a nucleophilic substitution reaction followed by base hydrolysis This polymer is expected to show interesting response to pH changes as well as selectivity for different heavy metal cations The sensing element will be produced by dispersing the Tris 2-aminoethyl amine-polymer beads and entrapping them as microspheres in a hydrogel membrane formed by cross linking poly vinylalcohol with gluteraldehyde The entrapping of the microspheres in the hydrogel aims to generate a sensing element that will be attached to the end of fiber optics to form a fiber optic sensor that will be used in real-life sample analysisOn Going Researchhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/ghassan-saffarini/article/On-Going-Research-1On Going ResearchesFragility index determination of Ge40S60 chalcogenide glass To determine the value of the fragility index m it is necessary to choose an expression for the relaxation time For a glass the relaxation time depends on the temperature and on some order parameters defining the structure of the glass Among the different expressions describing these variations that we may find in the literature for we use here the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan TNM expression which is given by: 1 where x 0 x 1 is the non-linearity or Narayanaswamy parameter ∆h is the apparent activation energy for enthalpy relaxation Tf is the fictive temperature defined as the temperature at which the structure of the glass would be in equilibrium if instantaneously brought to it and the other symbols carry their usual meanings For a given glass we must have a given value of ∆h In the liquid state the value of the non-linearity parameter is unity By assuming that the heating or cooling a glass is equivalent to a succession of identical isothermal steps it follows that q= constant q is the cooling or heating rate Under these assumptions it is easy to demonstrate that the apparent activation energy ∆h the cooling rate q- and the fictive temperature Tf are related via the relation: 2 Thus the variations of ln q- with reciprocal Tf allows us to determine the value of ∆h if Tf is known This fictive temperature can be calculated graphically on a calorimetric curve using the so-called equal areas construction method using the following integral form: 3 where T is any temperature above the transition region at which Cp is equal to the equilibrium liquid value CpL and T1 is a temperature well below the transition region Finally for a given value of the cooling rate q- and for a non-aged glass reheated up to its liquid state with a heating rate q such that q= q- the values of Tg and Tf are identified Thus knowing ∆h and Tg the value of the fragility index m can be obtained from 4 The Ge40S60 sample is prepared from a mixture of high purity 99999 Ge and S according to the melt-quench technique Variations of the heat capacity changes at Tg are measured by differential scanning calorimetry using DSC 2920 modulated TA instrument calorimeter run in the conventional mode To obtain good reproducibility the same sample sealed in an aluminium pan is used during all measurements To determine ∆h cooling experiments are performed From the rejuvenation temperature Tr about 10 K above Tg the sample is cooled down at the cooling rates of 100 50 20 10 5 1 Kmin Then they are immediately reheated at q =10 Kmin up to Tr To erase any aging effects in experiments the sample is kept for 3 min at Tr before any cooling run The calorimeter is calibrated in temperature and enthalpy of melting of pure indium A small lump of glass 1825 mg is sealed in aluminium pan and referenced to an empty one The results of this measurement will be the subject of a coming article physicshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2122/article/physicsOn Going ResearchesCurrent research interest : Randon concentration in air water and soil Electromagnetic wave pollution mobile phone stations HT power lines Magnetic properties of magnetic semiconductors or diluted magnetic semiconductors DMS by Recursion method and FP-LAPW method On going Researchhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/al-jaber/article/On-going-ResearchOn Going ResearchesCurrent Research: Prof Sami AL-Jaber Department of Physics The current research interest is in quantum confined systems for different kind of potentials The simple harmonic oscillator is a topic of utmost importance on quantum mechanics It is applicable in different physical situations and has the great advantage that has a closed form solutions for energy eigenvalues and eigen functions Various investigations of the harmonic oscillator has been considered the time-dependent harmonic oscillator harmonic oscillator with point interaction relativistic harmonic oscillator an-harmonic oscillator and the spiked harmonic oscillator Recently there has been some renewed interest in confined systems like the hydrogen atom and harmonic oscillator This interest is highly motivated by the technological advances in the filed of semiconductor quantum dots where the computations of electronic structure of such systems necessarily has to take into account the presence of finite boundaries on the system The purpose here is to extend the isotropic harmonic oscillator plus a central potential N dimensions Selected cases of the form of the central potential needs further work The motivations behind this proposed work is due to its interest in atomic and molecular physics One can also apply this work to psedo potentials in higher dimensions which is useful in nuclear physics I addition this is of great interest to mathematicians and physicists in theories studying so-called supper spaces or sipper-manifolds This is related to Clifford analysis which allows for an elegant formulation of higher dimensional theories Prevalence of Reduced Renal Function among Diabetic Hypertensive Patientshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/samahjabi/article/Prevalence-of-Reduced-Renal-Function-among-Diabetic-Hypertensive-PatientsOn Going ResearchesSweileh WM Sawalha AF Zyoud SH Al-Jabi SW Nasr Y Shraim Prevalence of Reduced Renal Function among Diabetic Hypertensive Patients Accepted for publish at International Journal of Physiology Pathophysiology and Pharmacology2009; 11: 23-29 [Publisher: e-Century Pub Corp Country where published: United States] PublishedAbstract:Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension are at high risk of vascular complications particularly renal deterioration This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of reduced renal function corresponding to chronic kidney disease CKD stages 3 5 among diabetic hypertensive patients This is a retrospective cohort study of diabetic hypertensive patients attending A-Watani governmental medical center from August 2006 until August 2007 Creatinine clearance CrCl was estimated using the CockcroftGault equation Those with CrCl 60 ml min corresponding to CDK stages 3 5 were considered to have reduced renal function The prevalence of reduced renal function was calculated and the risk factors associated with it were evaluated using multiple logistic regression The following were the results found in this study: a the prevalence of reduced renal function among the study patients was 355 distributed as follows: 635 had stage 3 CKD 217 had stage 4 and 13 had stage 5 CKD b Patients with reduced renal function were elder had higher number of chronic diseases and had longer duration of diabetes and hypertension than those with CrCl 60ml min c Men had a higher prevalence of reduced renal function than women d Significant predictors of reduced renal function were older age duration of diabetes and number of chronic diseases based on logistic regression analysis Early and continuous screening of renal function among diabetic hypertensive patients is required to implement preventable strategies of end stage renal disease ESRD Better control of blood pressure and diabetes mellitus are important IJCEM811001Links: http:wwwijppporgfilesIJPPP811001pdfOutbreak of Maedi-Visna in Sheep and Goats in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_2364/article/Outbreak-of-Maedi-Visna-in-Sheep-and-Goats-in-PalestineOn Going ResearchesAbstract: Clinical and laboratory studies in an outbreak of Maedi-visna disease in a flock of sheep and goats were conducted The clinical findings of the disease were loss of wool dyspnea and coughing progressive condition loss exercise intolerance and chronic mastitis Nervous signs were developed later and were characterized by gait abnormalities of the hind limbs ataxia tremor of facial muscles and recumbency A definitive diagnosis was made by characteristic clinical history gross and histopathological lesions and detection of seropositive animals by ELISA Key words: Outbreak; small ruminants; Maedi-visna; Palesti