An-Najah Blogs :: Curriculum Vita http://blogs.najah.edu/author/kameladwan-1962 An-Najah Blogs :: Curriculum Vita en-us Fri, 23 Oct 2020 22:38:20 IST Fri, 23 Oct 2020 22:38:20 IST webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu Antibacterial Activity of Common Varthemia, Varthemia iphionoides Ethanol Extract Alone and in Combination with Cefotaximehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Antibacterial-Activity-of-Common-Varthemia-Varthemia-iphionoides-Ethanol-Extract-Alone-and-in-Combination-with-CefotaximePublished Articles To assess the clinical utility of the crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Varthemia iphionoides Compositae minimal inhibitory concentrations eJ\v1Ies were determined using agar dilution technique Accordingly The MICs of this plant extract ranged from 00313-1 mgml for three clinical Staphylacaccus aureus strains and ATCC strains of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis whereas Escherichia coli studied in this report was fOlUld to exhibit higher 1v1Ie value 4 mgml The effect of combinations of ethanolic extract of Varthemia iphionoides and cefotaxime was investigated by means of fractional inhibitory concentration FIe indices Using the FIe indices synergistic interactions were observed against B subtilis ATCC 6633 and S aureus strains FIC indices of 075-0875; while combinations against E cali and S epidermidis ATCC 25923 exhibited antagonistic interactions FIC indices of 25 to 164 Synergy was confirmed at cefotaxime concentrations corresponding to 12 MIC and an ethanol extract concentrations corresponding to 141v1IC and lower In vitro activity of certain drugs in combination with plant extracts against Staphylococcus aureus infectionshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/In-vitro-activity-of-certain-drugs-in-combination-with-plant-extracts-against-Staphylococcus-aureus-infectionsPublished ArticlesObjectives: This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between ethanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria seed Psidium guajava Leaf Lawsonia inermis Leaf and Sacropoterium spinosum seed and antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl enrofloxacin gentamicin sulphate and sulfadimethoxine against four clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Methodology: Evaluation of the interaction between ethanolic extracts and different antimicrobial agents has been done using well-diffusion method Results: It showed that ethanolic extracts increase the inhibition zones of oxytetracycline HCl gentamicin sulphate and sulfadimethoxine while combinations between these plant extracts and enrofloxacin decrease inhibition zone Conclusion: This study probably suggests the possibility of concurrent use of these antimicrobial drugs and plant extracts in combination in treating infections caused by S aureus strains or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibioticsEnterotoxigenecity of S. Aureus Isolates Recovered from Chronic Urogenital Tract Infection in North Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Enterotoxigenecity-of-S-aureus-isolates-recovered-from-chronic-urogenital-tract-infection-in-North-PalestinePublished ArticlesObjectives: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with diseases in a variety of hosts including humans It produces several toxins and virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential such as staphylococcal enterotoxins SEs This study was conducted to determine enterotoxigenicity of S aureus associated with chronic urogenital tract infection by detecting enterotoxin genes Setting: This study was done in The Microbiology laboratory An-Najah N University Palestine Methodology: A total of 90 S aureus isolates recovered from clinical samples from patients suffering from chronic urogenital tract infection in the North of Palestine were used to detect the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea seb sec sed and see by polymerase chain reaction PCR assay Results: Out of 90 S aureus isolates tested it was found that 57 633 of these isolates harboured one or more enterotoxin genes Up to 789 of the enterotoxigenic isolates possessed one SE gene The majority of these enterotoxigenic strains 614 isolated from both semen and urine samples harbored sec gene either alone or in combination with other genes Also the prevalence of genes in combination was significantly more common in S aureus isolates derived from urine 933 273 as compared to those derived from semen 324 125 Conclusions: The role of enterotoxin genes in the pathogenesis of urogenital tract infection is stilt unknown However it is evident that urogenital infection can be caused by S aureus strains which tack these genes Other newly detected genes may play a rote in pathogenesisEfficacy of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Some Palestinian Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Efficacy-of-Aqueous-and-Ethanol-Extracts-of-Some-Palestinian-Medicinal-Plants-for-Potential-Antibacterial-ActivityPublished ArticlesNine medicinal plants growing in Palestine were screened in vitro for potential antibacterial activity against 6 bacterial strains by well diffusion and micro-dilution techniques Both aqueous and organic solvents were used The dried extracts of Sacropoterium spinosum Rosaceae seed Ruta chalepensis L Rutaceae leaf Cassia senna Ligumenosa leaf Lawsonia inermis Lythraceae leaf Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Leaf Carataegus azerullus Rosaceae Leaf Ranunclus asiaticusRanunculaceae Flowers Calendula officinalis Composita Flowersand Salvia syriaca Labiatae leaf were screened The bacterial strains tested were; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA; three strains 1 2 3 multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia The average diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 30 mm and 11 to 28 mm for aqueous and ethanol extract respectively Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA was the most inhibited microorganism Sacropoterium spinosum extract was the most active against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa The MIC value of ethanol extract was 0781 mgml against MRSA while 0390 mgml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa The combination effect of ethanol extracts of Sacropoterium spinosum with Lawsonia Inermis on bacterial species tested exhibited a higher effect than that of any individual extract Such results lead to an interesting promise for further investigation to design potentially active antibacterial augmentative agents of natural sources Key words: Antibacterial activities plant extracts methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PalestineAntibacterial Effects of Nutraceutical Plants Growing in Palestine on Pseudomonas aeruginosahttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Antibacterial-Effects-of-Nutraceutical-Plants-Growing-in-Palestine-on-Pseudomonas-aeruginosaPublished ArticlesThe antibacterial effects of single and combined plant extracts of water ethanol and methanol for two nutraceuticals utilized in Palestine were studied against multiple drug resistances Pseudomonas aeruginosa using well diffusion method These plants are Rhus coriaria and Thymus vulgaris Combinations of these extracts showed an additive action against this pathogenAntibacterial Activity of Four Plant Extracts Used in Palestine in Folkloric Medicine against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureushttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Antibacterial-Activity-of-Four-Plant-Extracts-Used-in-Palestine-in-Folkloric-Medicine-against-Methicillin-Resistant-Staphylococcus-aureusPublished ArticlesEthanolic and hot water extracts from 4 different plant species used in Palestine in popular medicine for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origin were evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Both water and ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia Melissa officinalis and Rosa damascena were effective on MRSA The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC values of the ethanolic extract of M longifolia and M officinalis were in the range of 3125 to 1250 mgml and 1250 to 2500 mgml respectively The ethanolic extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of R damascena MIC 0395 to 0780 mgml and MBC 1563 to 3125 mgml The combination of ethanolic extracts of the plants studied showed synergistic antibacterial activity against MRSA strainsHepatitis B surface antibody response of household contacts of hepatitis B virus carriers in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Hepatitis-B-surface-antibody-response-of-household-contacts-of-hepatitis-B-virus-carriers-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesTo evaluate the effectiveness of hepatitis B virus HBV vaccination of household contacts of HBV carriers in Tulkarm district Palestine quantitative hepatitis B surface anti-HBs antibody response in 161 household contacts was measured after vaccination A seroprotective anti-HBs response titre 10 IUL was elicited in all vaccinated subjects Of these 25 had titres of 1099 IUL 615 100999 IUL and 360 1000 IUL The number of vaccination doses had no effect on the achievement of seroprotection HBV infection was demonstrated in 13 cases and their anti-HBV titres were in the range 25350 IULNosocomial Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Nosocomial-Infection-Caused-by-Methicillin-Resistant-Staphylococcus-aureus-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesThis report presents the prevalence of Palestinian isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in nosocomial infections and their antibiotic resistant pattern A total of 321 clinical isolates of S aureus were identified from different patients The prevalence of methicillin resistance among S aureus isolates was 87 28 isolates Resistance rates of MRSA to other antibiotics were as follows: 821 resistant to erythromycin 679 to clindamycin 643 to gentamicin and 321 to ciprofloxacin No co-trimoxazole- and vancomycin-resistant isolates were identified in this study The proportion of methicillin resistance was highest among S aureus isolates associated with upper respiratory specimens 428; the proportion of methicillin resistance was 393 among skin ulcer isolates 107 among urinary tract infection isolates and lowest among isolates associated with blood and prostate discharge 36 each Microbial Drug Resistance March 1 2005 111: 75-77 doi:101089mdr20051175 Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers among High Risk Groups in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Prevalence-of-Hepatitis-B-Virus-Markers-among-High-Risk-Groups-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesSUMMARY: Four hundred and twenty one sera samples collected during 1995 to 1997 from subjects at high-risk for HBV infections were tested for the presence of HBV markers The subjects included kidney transplants n=109 hemodialyzed patients n=76 non-vaccinated healthcare workers n=52 and blood transfusion dependent patients n=80 Blood transfusion dependent patients include 60 thalassemic 6 hemophilic and 14 sickle cell anemia patients HBsAg prevalence rates of 294 17 225 and 96 were observed among kidney transplant hemodialysis blood transfusion dependent patients and non-vaccinated healthcare workers respectively HBeAg prevalence rates among HBsAg positive subjects of the previous groups were 438 769 389 and 00 respectively Our study indicates that 769 of HBsAg positive hemodialysis patients and 438 of HBsAg positive kidney transplant patients are highly contagious and constitute a high risk factor for the spreading of this infection The prevalence rates of anti-HBc previous infection rates of 569 500 379 and 173 were observed among kidney transplant hemodialysis blood dependent patients and non-vaccinated healthcare workers respectively These results show that HBsAg in these high risk groups is high and vaccination against HBV of these groups is recommendedAntibacterial Activity of Rhus Coriaria. L Extracts Growing in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Antibacterial-Activity-of-Rhus-Coriaria-L-Extracts-Growing-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesDisk diffusion and micro-dilution techniques were used to determine the antibacterial activity of water ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria ripe berries against five clinical bacterial strains Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 EHEC Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633 was used as a reference strain The zone of inhibition varies depending on bacterial species and type of extract The average diameter of inhibition zones ranges from 0 to 19 mm 15 to 25 mm and 15 to 22 mm for water ethanolic and methanolic extract respectively The MIC value of ethanolic extract was 125 mgml against MRSA EHEC P aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris while 0156 mgml against B subtilis In general these results showed that the antibacterial activity of R coriaria ripe berries extracts was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative Journal of The Islamic University of Gaza Natural Sciences Series Vol13 No2 P147-153 2005 Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureusin Raw Milk in the North of Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Enterotoxigenic-Staphylococcus-aureusin-Raw-Milk-in-the-North-of-PalestinePublished ArticlesEnterotoxin genes sea-see in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from milk of clinically healthy sheep and cows in the north of Palestine were determined using a polymerase chain reaction PCR Thirty-seven 37 out of 100 S aureusisolates were toxin gene positive Four strains 108 were sea-positive 20 541 were seb-positive 4 108 were sec-positive 6 162 were sed-positive and 3 81 were see-positive None of these enterotoxigenic isolates carried more than one toxin gene This study indicates that the presence of enterotoxigenic S aureusin raw milk can contribute to the sources of staphylococcal food poisoning in Palestine STAPHTurk J Biol 29 2005 229-232 Isolation of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli from raw beef in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Isolation-of-shiga-toxigenic-Escherichia-coli-from-raw-beef-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesShiga toxigenic Escherichia coli STEC isolated from raw beef samples in northern Palestine during a 1-year period were characterized for virulence genes by a polymerase chain reaction PCR assay and screened for their antibiotic resistance STEC was identified in 44 147 of 300 raw beef samples Twelve 273 of the STEC isolates were serotype O157 Nine of those were isolated during summer The majority of STEC isolates 705 harbored both stx1 and stx2 genes while the others harbored either stx1 or stx2 High levels of resistance against different antimicrobial agents were detected Resistance to at least three drugs was found in 55 of the isolates International Journal of Food Microbiology Volume 97 Issue 1 1 December 2004 Pages 81-84 http:dxdoiorg101016jijfoodmicro200403032Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Ribosome Spacer and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reactionhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Typing-of-Methicillin-Resistant-Staphylococcus-aureus-by-Ribosome-Spacer-and-Arbitrarily-Primed-Polymerase-Chain-ReactionPublished ArticlesThirty-five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA clinical isolates were collected from 3 hospitals in the northern and southern parts of Palestine between February and May 1998 These isolates were typed by ribosome spacer PCR RSPCR and arbitrarily primed PCR AP-PCR RS-PCR generated 9 different genotypes The use of APPCR provided a high resolution typing method and allowed us to define 11 different clusters Three major clusters however based on the combination of both typing methods spread throughout the neonatal and intensive care units of Rafidya Hospital during the entire periodAntibacterial Activities of Some Plant Extracts Utilized in Popular Medicine in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Antibacterial-Activities-of-Some-Plant-Extracts-Utilized-in-Popular-Medicine-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesThe antibacterial activities of hot water methanol and ethanol extracts of 5 plant extracts utilized in Palestine in popular medicine were studied The dried extracts of Syzyium aromaticum Myrtaceae seed Cinnamomum cassia Lauraceae cassia bark Chinese cinnamon bark Salvia officinalis Lamiaceaea leaf Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceaea leaf and Rosmarinus officinalis Labiatae leaf were tested in vitro against 4 bacterial species by disk diffusion and micro-dilution The patterns of inhibition varied with the plant extract the solvent used for extraction and the organism tested Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 were the most inhibited microorganisms S aromaticum extract was the most active against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 EHEC The combinations of ethanolic extracts of S officinalis with R officinalis and of R officinalis with T vulgaris on bacterial species tested exhibited a higher effect than that of any individual extract Results of this kind herald the interesting promise of designing a potentially active antibacterial synergized agent of plant origin Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in palestine by arbitrarily primed PCRhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-in-palestine-by-arbitrarily-primed-PCRPublished ArticlesWe report on a study of 35 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA clinical isolates collected between February and May 1998 from 4 different hospitals in Northern and Southern Palestine The isolates were recovered from infection and carriage sites of patients and hospital environmental samples The arbitrarily primed PCR AP-PCR method with two primers appears to be a useful tool provides a fast and simple method for genetic analysis of MRSA infections and allows us to differentiate 22 different AP-PCR patterns The major cluster however sharing common AP-PCR as well as a common PFGE pattern represented 34 of all MRSA isolates Isolates of this cluster were spread throughout the neonatal and intensive care units of Rafidya hospital during the entire period In addition these isolates were distributed in the southern part of Palestine as wellIsolation and characterisation of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli strains from northern Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Isolation-and-characterisation-of-Shiga-toxigenic-Escherichia-coli-strains-from-northern-PalestinePublished ArticlesShiga toxigenic Escherichia coli STEC isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in northern Palestine in 1999 were screened for serotype O157 and characterised for virulence genes by multiplex PCR assay Of the 176 STEC isolates 124 705 were of serotype O157 All these isolates carried the gene for Shiga toxin type 1 stx1 and 112 903 carried s tx2 The intimin encoding gene locus eae was detected in 16 isolates 129 and the enterohaemolysin encoding gene hlyA in 18 145 Statistical analysis showed a significant association between the presence of eaeA and hlyA either alone or combined with stx1 and stx2 genes in O157 isolates from symptomatic infection ERIC-PCR analysis of DNA from 80 serotype O157 isolates revealed three major clonal populations The Journal of Medical Microbiology:Volume 514April 2002pp 332-335 Human cystic echinococcosis in the West Bank of Palestine: surgical incidence and seroepidemiological studyhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Human-cystic-echinococcosis-in-the-West-Bank-of-Palestine-surgical-incidence-and-seroepidemiological-studyPublished ArticlesThe surgical incidence of cystic echinococcosis CE due to Echinococcus granulosus was investigated in hospitals of the West Bank Palestinian Authority between January 1990 and December 1997 Serum samples from school-children in Yata town which showed the highest surgical incidence were tested for anti-hydatid antibodies A total of 390 surgically confirmed cases were recorded throughout the 8-year period with an overall mean annual surgical incidence MASI of 31 per 100000 A high MASI of 49 50 and 51 per 100000 was found in Hebron Jericho and Bethlehem Governorates respectively Yata town Hebron governorate showed the highest MASI at 168 per 100000 The highest incidence was found in age groups 11-20 and 21-30 years at 274 and 215 of the total number of cases While there was no significant gender difference in the number of cases in the age groups of 20 years or less the male to female case ratio was 1:32-41 in the older age groups The liver was the most common site of hydatid cysts in 699 of cases Lung cysts were predominant in younger age groups 20 years or less The seropositivity for CE in the school-children of Yata was 24 and 21 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect haemagglutination test respectively CE is a significant endemic disease throughout the West Bank The disease is acquired early in life and is more prevalent among females than males Behaviour and life-style favour the spread of the disease Parasitology Research Volume 88 Number 2 February 2002 http:wwwspringerlinkcomcontent7xbglv2g11qvd762High incidence of penicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in northern Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/High-incidence-of-penicillin-resistance-amongst-clinical-isolates-of-Streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-northern-PalestinePublished ArticlesOne hundred and thirteen consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected in Nablus Palestine between March and Aug 1997 from childrenvith acute lower respiratory tract infections Resistance rates were: penicillin 88 cefuroxime 85 erythromycin 63 tetracycline 45 chloramphenicol 27 and ofloxacin 2 Resistances to erythromycin and cefuroxime were significantly associated with penicillin resistance Ofloxacin may be useful against pneumococci resistant to traditional antimicrobial agents Factors associated with penicillin resistance included hospitalisation and previous use of beta-lactam antibioticsThe use of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of periplasmic proteins to subtypePseudomonas aeruginosa pyocin type 10/b clinical isolateshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/The-use-of-SDS-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis-of-periplasmic-proteins-to-subtypePseudomonas-aeruginosa-pyocin-type-10b-clinical-isolatesPublished ArticlesThe periplasmic protein banding patterns PPBPs of thirteen strains ofPseudomonas aeruginosa pyocin type 10b implicated in two nosocomial outbreaks in the neonatal unit of Rafeidia Hospital Nablus palestine were examined In addition five strains from sporadic cases from the same unit occurring in 1996 and 1997 were also studied Despite different sources of the strains PPBPs generated by PAGE suggested a clonal nature of the strains obtained during each of the two outbreaks Although they had very similar PPBPs the two outbreak clones were not identical In contrast sporadic strains ofP aeruginosa pyocin type 10 appeared to be much more heterogeneous than those of the two outbreaks PPBP analysis appeared to be a useful tool that may be of value for epidemiological purposes Infection Volume 27 Number 1 January 1999 Analysis of neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin and amikacin resistance mechanisms in gentamicin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceaehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Analysis-of-neomycin-kanamycin-tobramycin-and-amikacin-resistance-mechanisms-in-gentamicin-resistant-isolates-of-EnterobacteriaceaePublished ArticlesTwenty-four gentamicin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from the clinical laboratories of three health centres in Nablus Palestine were tested for susceptibility to neomycin kanamycin tobramycin and amikacin Resistance rates were 292 for neomycin 583 for kanamycin 458 for tobramycin and 83 for amikacin Fourteen 583 isolates were noted to be multiresistant ie resistant to gentamicin and two or more other aminoglycosides; resistance to gentamicin kanamycin and tobramycin was the most common pattern of multiple resistance This pattern implies the involvement of adenyltransferase ANT2 \-I activity Plasmid profiles and curing experiments suggested a plasmid localisation of gentamicin neomycin kanamycin and tobramycin resistance genes However a chromosomal location is proposed for plasmid-deficient strains Cross-resistance in two isolates to all aminoglycosides tested suggested membrane impermeability to aminoglycosides as the mechanism of resistanceGentamicin resistance in clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae associated with reduced gentamicin uptakehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/kameladwan-1962/article/Gentamicin-resistance-in-clinical-strains-of-Enterobacteriaceae-associated-with-reduced-gentamicin-uptakePublished ArticlesSeven strains ofEnterobacteriaceae resistant to gentamicin obtained as representatives of the predominant resistance profiles in the clinical laboratories ofRafeidia and Al-Watani Hospitals in Nablus Palestine were included Five strains showed a broad aminoglycoside resistance profile but contained no evidence of gentamicin acetylation adenylation or phosphorylation Gentamicin uptake in two tested strains was significantly reduced compared to that of gentamicin-sensitiveE coli MIC 05 gmL These strains are likely resistant due to a relative reduction of the amount of gentamicin and other aminoglycosides entering the bacterial cell Two strains showed evidence of adenyltransferase ANT 2-I activity Folia Microbiologica Volume 43 Number 4 August 1998