An-Najah Blogs :: http://blogs.najah.edu/author/emp_3006 An-Najah Blogs :: en-us Sat, 25 Nov 2017 13:04:57 IST Sat, 25 Nov 2017 13:04:57 IST webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu Appraisal of social and cultural factors affecting wastewater reuse in the West Bankhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Appraisal-of-social-and-cultural-factors-affecting-wastewater-reuse-in-the-West-BankPublished ArticlesThe reuse of treated wastewater offers opportunities to reduce the demand for scarce potable water resources Importantly social acceptance poses a barrier to the effective use of this resource should the concept not be comprehensively presented This research highlights the potential for reuse of wastewater identifies the areas of concern and examines the most important factors that affect wastewater reuse in the West Bank Palestine The most important factors considered are social religious economic health political freshwater scarcity and institutional framework It is found that traditions have negative effect on the acceptance of wastewater reuse The psychological factor is negatively affecting the opinion of the community Public awareness is weak and the information provided is not sufficient The research will contribute to the improvement of the environment and sustainable development of the West Bank and proposes guidelines for a strategic plan for wastewater reuseGIS-Based KW–GIUH Hydrological Model of Semiarid Catchments: the Case of Faria Catchment, Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/GIS-Based-KWndashGIUH-Hydrological-Model-of-Semiarid-Catchments-the-Case-of-Faria-Catchment-PalestinePublished ArticlesAmong the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of flow hydrographs Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs of gauged catchments using historical rainfallrunoff data and unit hydrographs Such procedures are questioned as to their reliability and their application to ungauged arid and semiarid catchments To overcome such difficulties the use of physically based rainfallrunoff estimation methods such as the Geomorphologic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph GIUH approach has evolved This paper models the rainfallrunoff process of Faria catchment using the lately developed KWGIUH Faria catchment located in the northeastern part of the West Bank Palestine is characterized as a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from 150 to 640 mm at both ends of the catchment The Geographical Information System GIS techniques were used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment A GIS-based KWGIUH hydrological model was used to simulate the rainfallrunoff process in the three sub-catchments of Faria namely: Al-Badan Al-Faria and Al-Malaqi The simulated runoff hydrographs proved that the GIS-based KWGIUH model is applicable to semiarid regions and can be used to estimate the unit hydrographs in the West Bank catchments Management of Olive-Mills Wastewater in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Management-of-Olive-Mills-Wastewater-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesDifferent treatment technologies are reported to have been applied for treating olive-mills wastewater OMW Among these are the anaerobic combined with aerobic forced evaporation chemical and biological treatment methods The reuse of the solid residue of olive-mills is reported among others as burning material or as filtering media This paper evaluates the treatment options of the OMW generated in Palestine It elaborates on the different treatment and management alternatives and examines their effectiveness A sample of 20 Mills has been surveyed in the Nablus-Tulkarem region and their wastewater quantities and characteristics are presented Centralized treatment and disposal plants for OMW are recommended as a practical option for Palestine Oil-extraction process modifications in combination with forced evaporation are recommended as the most appropriate management and treatment option An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 21 2007 Pages: 063-083Management Options of Wadi Faria Baseflowhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Management-Options-of-Wadi-Faria-BaseflowPublished Articles The availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development worldwide In arid and semi-arid regions where water scarcity is a dominant problem the overexploitation of water resources threatens to deteriorate the availability of these natural resources Wadi Faria catchments located within the Jordan River Basin in Palestine are under arid and semiarid conditions as characterized by the scarcity of its natural water resources and the low per capita water allocation Wadi Faria is a perennial stream in which 11 fresh water springs form the baseflow Annual discharges from these springs vary from less than 4 to 42 MCM with an approximate average of 135 MCM These available water resources have sustainable-yield limits that do not meet the water needs Management of the available water in Wadi Faria is essential for the sustainable development of the area This has compelled the motivation for developing a set of management options to optimally manage the baseflow of Wadi Faria as a necessary step towards developing its water resources This paper explores management options to set the framework for decisionmaking in regard of efficient practices that can be adopted to manage the scarce water resources of Wadi Faria catchments Modeling the Eocene Aquifer in Northern West Bankhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Modeling-the-Eocene-Aquifer-in-Northern-West-BankPublished ArticlesThe Eocene aquifer is one of the major groundwater aquifers in Palestine It is located in the northeastern part of the West Bank covering areas of both Jenin and Nablus districts The development of the groundwater within the Eocene aquifer is very essential for the Palestinian water supply This paper simulates for groundwater flow in the Eocene aquifer using MODFLOW as a strong available groundwater model The groundwater budget flow computation and flow path-lines were estimated and calibrated Groundwater balance has been evaluated The Modeling results show that a minimum initial level of 340 m above sea level should be applied to model the hydraulics of the aquifer correctly The recharge and hydraulic conductivity are the most sensitive model parameters The hydraulic conductivity in some areas has proved to be double than assumed by other literatures More reasonable recharge coefficients in comparison to other literatures have been obtained Groundwater balance indicated that the water budget of the Eocene aquifer totals about 72 MCMyr The modeling has indicated reasonable matching between the observed and modeled groundwater levels and spring flows The flow direction within the aquifer is from the south to north and northeast The Faria spring system located to the southeast is the major sink within the aquifer It attracts most of the particle tracking lines due to its high discharge rates It is recommended to monitor the existing wells and springs permanently It is also recommended to asses the effect of the faults and fractures on the hydraulic conductivity An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 20 2006 Pages: 41-62Probability Distribution of Faria Catchment Rainfall Datahttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Probability-Distribution-of-Faria-Catchment-Rainfall-DataPublished ArticlesAnalysis of rainfall data is one of the important tools to understand the climatic conditions of any region Extreme events such as severe storms floods and droughts are the main features of the hydrological system of a region that need to be analyzed Faria catchment dominating the eastern slopes of the West Bank is a catchment of about 330 km2 attains the semiarid characteristics of the region The catchment is gauged by 6 rainfall stations that record daily rainfalls Frequency analysis is applied here to analyze the recorded rainfall The statistical distribution of these data are presented and evaluated Gumbel distribution is applied to simulate the annual rainfall data of the 6 station of Faria catchment Trend and regression analysis have been also applied The results have provided means to understand and evaluate the distribution characteristics of the rainfall in semiarid regions An increasing trend of rainfall averages is obtained for the elevated stations and a decreasing trend for the lower stations The trend is related to the later developments and changes in the climatic conditions of the region Regression analysis relates the 6 stations within the Faria catchmentHydrograph Estimation in Semiarid Regions Using GIS Supported GIUH Modelhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Hydrograph-Estimation-in-Semiarid-Regions-Using-GIS-Supported-GIUH-ModelPublished ArticlesAmong the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of the flow hydrographs and their transmission to the outlet Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs at the outlets of gauged watersheds using historical rainfall-runoff data and unit hydrographs derived from them Such procedures are questioned for their reliability due to the climatic and physical changes in the watershed and their application to ungauged arid and semiarid catchments To overcome such difficulties the use of physically based rainfall-runoff estimation methods such as the Geomorphologic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph GIUH approach has evolved In this study the lately developed GIUH model is applied to Al-Badan watershed of Faria catchment located in the northeastern part of the West Bank Palestine The Faria catchment characterizes a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from about 150 to 600 mm The Geographical Information System GIS techniques are used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment The application of the GIS supported GIUH model has proved reasonable agreement between the simulated runoff hydrograph and the recorded flows The paper has elaborated on the applicability of the unit hydrograph theory and the GIUH to semiarid regionsBedload Transport in Gravel Streams - Surface Versus Subsurface Based Transport Analysishttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Bedload-Transport-in-Gravel-Streams---Surface-Versus-Subsurface-Based-Transport-AnalysisPublished ArticlesFluid forces and the quantity and ranges of grain sizes present on a streambed are the important factors affecting the transport of sediments Most bedload transport models are based on single grain size parameter that represents either the surface or the subsurface bed material Fractional bedload transport analysis is used to account for the different grain sizes Surface versus subsurface-based fractional analysis of available bedload transport data are compared and the effect of the selection of the dimensionless reference bedload transport parameter is investigated Fractional analysis has indicated that it is referenced to the size distribution of the bed surface rather than the subsurface and that its necessity increases for bedload data sets that fall closer to the lower end near threshold conditions The reference value for the dimensionless bedload parameter used in this paper falls within the lower range of the analyzed bedload data set An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 19 2005 Pages: 099-116Wastewater reuse as means to optimize the use of water resources in the West Bankhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Wastewater-reuse-as-means-to-optimize-the-use-of-water-resources-in-the-West-BankPublished ArticlesThe increase in demand for the limited raw water resources in the Palestinian Territories has led to the proposals for use of treated wastewater as one alternative for alleviating water shortages and for optimizing the use of water resources Wastewater reuse is a multi-discipline and important element of water resources development Wastewater usage releases high quality water for drinking and other purposes Quantitative economic and social aspects related to wastewater reuse in the West Bank are discussed Through analyses of the estimated cost and expected water quantities the paper investigates the economic feasibility of wastewater reuse Social acceptance is elicited by means of questionnaires which have been applied to farmers and inhabitants in different areas of the West Bank Wastewater reuse can compensate for about 10 percent of irrigated agriculture which contributes 35 percent of the total value of the Palestinian agricultural sector The paper presents an analysis of the main aspects of wastewater reuse and defines an approach to the beneficial use of wastewater as a component that should be considered in the strategy for the overall management of water resources in the Palestinian TerritoriesStorm Water Drainage in Arid and Semiarid Regions: West Bank as a Case Studyhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Storm-Water-Drainage-in-Arid-and-Semiarid-Regions-West-Bank-as-a-Case-StudyPublished ArticlesStorm water drainage is as important in arid and semiarid regions as in humid regions because it is not only a drainage problem but also water resources management and planning problem In the West Bank storm water drainage has not been given enough care and no intensive studies have been done This paper studies the rainfall runoff process in the West Bank as a case study towards understanding storm water drainage in arid and semiarid regions where the process has different characteristics as being rarely heavy but significant in terms of pollution annual runoff andor in improving the sustainability of the water resources The runoff to rainfall ratio in the West Bank proved to be considerably variable with no clear relation controlling the process The arid and semiarid watersheds seem mostly to behave as variable sources and as partial contributing areas In the Soreq and Rujeeb watersheds studied as example watersheds no runoff was recorded for daily rainfalls of less than 30mm Rainfalls of more than 50mm having intensities of 10mmhr or more proved to produce considerable runoff events These are still characterized as partial contributing Subsurface flow in the Soreq watershed is dominated which indicates that the traditional unit hydrograph approach might not be applicable Keywords: Storm Water Drainage; Arid and Semiarid Regions; Rainfall Runoff Process; Unit Hydrograph; Partial Contributing Areas An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 16 Issue 2 2002 Pages: 125-139Municipal wastewater characteristics at Irtah pumping station in the Tulkarem cityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/Municipal-wastewater-characteristics-at-Irtah-pumping-station-in-the-Tulkarem-cityPublished ArticlesWastewater flow samples were collected at 2-hour intervals for one week during the month of October 1998 at the Irtah wastewater pumping station in the Tulkarem city The station collects about 32 of the wastewater of the Tulkarem city and 25 of the Tulkarem camp The samples were mixed on 24-hour basis and tested for the pollution parameters BOD5 COD total suspended solids orthophosphate fetal Kjeldahl nitrogen ammonia nitrogen nitrate calcium sodium and potassium At the 2-hour intervals the wastewater flow was tested for conductivity temperature pH and dissolved oxygen The variation of the strength of these parameters and its relation to the flow values are observed and evaluated The produced organic strength versus the flow and the 24-hour mixed samples are presented and commented uponA Watershed Model for Estimating Suspended Sediment Hydrographshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/emp_3006/article/A-Watershed-Model-for-Estimating-Suspended-Sediment-HydrographsPublished Articleshttp:cedbasceorgcgiWWWdisplaycgi?9403627