An-Najah Blogs :: An-Najah Blogs :: en-us Sat, 02 Jul 2022 08:03:20 IDT Sat, 02 Jul 2022 08:03:20 IDT An Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian Geological and Hydrological Information Center (G.I.C.) for the Lower Jordan Valley Area ArticlesAn Israeli-Palestinian-Jordanian integrated Geohydrological Information Center GIC and data processing was constructed The GIC integrates all the data available with respect to the Dead Sea area the Jordan River Valley and its margins The objectives of the GIC construction is to supply the core parties with the development of database to store quality assure analyze and exchange geological and hydrological information related to groundwater resources of the region The GIC conducted numerous activities to construct and improve the database for all core parties and to facilitate exchange of consistent and accurate data on regional water resources Improved capabilities to quantitatively analyze and use geohydrological data contribute to improve management of scarce and fragile groundwater resources in the region Such regional GIC can contribute not only to traditional geohydrological activities such as well sitting but also to advanced model of large-scale groundwater flow and transport Advances in computer technology now allow realistic simulations of three-dimensional groundwater flow and simulation of flow and transport of saline waters beneath fresh rock aquifers However the accuracy of such models is largely based on the extent to which geohydrologic data both quantitative and qualitative is incorporated in the computer model inputEvaluation of Water Management Options for More Food Security in Palestine ArticlesWater management options for more food security in Palestine were evaluated using WEAP simulation model A water management structure consisting of eight interrelated modules covering all aspects of water management was used Three potential future political scenarios were tested: the current a consolidate and an independent State order Simulations indicated that political status has decisive impact on water availability and the level of unmet demand and accordingly on present and future food security in Palestine Water management water trading and water cost modules resulted in reductions in future water demands and therefore have positive impact on food security in PalestinePolitics and Water Management: A Palestinian Perspective ArticlesThis chapter examines the notion that politics is a significant if not the prime factor that influences on-the-ground realities of water use sanitation and water resource development in Palestine Israeli water politics in the Occupied Palestinian Territory OPT were based on the goal of controlling Palestinian land and resources and forcing Palestinians to leave the country They were characterized by four main steps: to use military overpower and unilateral actions to set and create new on ground realities that constitute the new negotiating basis to enact laws and military orders that will help strengthen control and oversee what was taken by military force set policy on the future directions and actions to be taken to fulfill the main objective of controlling Palestinian land and resources and implement through the establishment of institutions that control on ground the forced new reality Continuing the past and present Israeli approaches will result in serious harm to both people with different proportions and scales To achieve a long lasting just peace between the two sides based on unified national rights human values and mutual living is the solution A joint Palestinian Israeli water utility operating and serving both people along this line is considered to be a highly feasible option for resolving the water conflictAn Islamic Approach towards Environmental Education ArticlesAdistinctly Islamic approach to environmental education is pinpointed as a result of a identifying listing sorting and grouping the verses in the Quran the holy book of Islam and Moslems related to environmental education such as learning exercising and mind and knowledge development and b finding connections and relationships between groups according to mutual meanings The approach is formulated in a tripod-type structure Allah Subhanahu Wa Taala the one-and-only Creator represented by the belief in and application of his rules and directions as stated in the holy Quran stands at the top of the tripod The legs of the tripod represent faith manifestation and knowledge and each leg in turn constitutes the top of a local sub-tripod comprising of path reference and end results Canadian Journal of Environmental Education CJEE Vol 11 No 1 - 2006Public Attitudes towards Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Sanitation Services: Palestine as a Case Study ArticlesIdentifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality efficiency and performance of those services A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards socio-cultural and institutional aspects of water supply and sanitation services The Palestinian public was found to be an important forward planner aware of the various problems facing the sector willing to cooperate and support critical of current governmental practices and performances in the sector and highly attached to its religious and ethical values The study revealed the need of the Palestinian Authority to reset its water supply and sanitation priorities and upgrade and develop not only the water system but also the way of knowing and disseminating knowledge related to water supply and sanitation Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 10 Spring 2005 195 Impacts of Irrigation with Water Containing Heavy Metals on Soil and Groundwater – A Simulation Study Articles IMPACTS OF IRRIGATION WITH WATER CONTAINING HEAVY METALS ON SOIL AND GROUNDWATER A SIMULATION STUDY MOHAMMED M AL-SUBU MARWAN HADDAD NUMAN MIZYED and INAYA MIZYED An-Najah National University Nablus Palestine via Israel author for correspondence e-mail: alsubu@najahedu Received 26 October 2000; accepted 19 December 2002 Abstract This research work intended to study the impacts of irrigation water containing various levels of copper lead and zinc on adsorption capacity of soil packed in 4 plastic columns and obtained from two locations around the city of Nablus: Salem A and Deir Sharaf B Results of simulation experiments showed an increase in the copper lead and zinc concentrations in soil and in leachate with increasing the amount of metal in irrigation water Copper lead and zinc concentrations increased also with soil depth and duration of application The results also indicate that the self purification of both soils was highly affected by physical factors ie the intermittent application of irrigation water to the soils in the columns caused soil wetting and drying cycles which resulted in the formation of cracks in shrinked soils specially in the top half of the columns Crack formation is common in such clay soils due to the climatic conditions Mediterranean type: dry summers and wet winters and type of clay minerals in the soil Thus short circuiting of water through cracks results in moving contaminants fast and deep in the soil profile Keywords: groundwater heavy metals irrigation water leachate mediterranean climate soil pollution 1 Introduction Generally wastewater is a liquid waste that is removed from residential institutional and commercial establishments Contaminants of domestic wastewater are categorized as: Disease causing microorganisms essential plant nutrient elements dissolved minerals and toxic chemicals and biodegradable organic matter Manahan 1990 Discharging raw wastewater to the environment causes pollution problems therefore the treatment of wastewater is essential to enhance overall water availability and conserve water resources Aziz et al 1996; Moatgomery 1988 Urban wastewater collection practices in Palestine are such that many small industries are located within municipal boundaries and drain their wastewater into the municipal systems Due to scarcity of fresh water farmers use raw wastewater in irrigation Haddad 1990 1993 The long term use of land application as a disposal method of raw wastewater andor sludge may result in limiting soils agricultural ability to produce Martin Edward 1991 Several studies were conducted on the toxicity of urban wastewater in Palestine and on its impacts on groundwater plants and soils Haddad 1994; Radi et al 1988; Environmental Protection 2000; Haddad 2000 The reported heavy metal concentrations of wastewater in Palestine range from 0 to 2075 mg L 1 for zinc 0 to 10 mg L 1 for copper and from 0 to 15 g mL1 for lead Environmental Protection 2000; Haddad 2000; Haddad et al 1999 Zinc has the highest level due to the fact that galvanized steel tanks mounted on the roofs of buildings and houses are used in Palestine for water supply storage In conventional wastewater treatment considerable portions of heavy metals remain in the treated effluent if special advanced treatment is not conducted Thus long term effects of irrigation with wastewater might include pollution of ground water and soil with heavy metals such as: Pb Cu and Zn ions Lebourg et al 1998 Other impacts of treated wastewater in agriculture include the health impacts of possible contamination of crops by pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals Farid et al 1993 There is a rapidly growing awareness of the threat to water resources caused by highway drainage and sewage effluents Some of the most significant contaminants are heavy metals such as copper zinc and lead Farid et al 1993; Selim and Iskandar 1992; Laxen and Harrison 1977; Chatzoudis and Rigas 1998; Mendoza et al 1996 Though copper is not a cumulative systemic poison large dose 100 mg of copper are harmful to humans and might cause central nervous system disorder failure of pigmentation of hair and adverse effects on Fe-metabolism that results in liver damage Excess copper may also be deposited in the eyes brain skin pancreas and myocardium McAnally et al 1997 Lead is a cumulative poison to humans Its major effects are impairment of hemoglobin and porphyries synthesis Zinc cause muscular weaknesses and pain irritability and nausea AWWA 1990 In Palestine the availability of renewable water resources to maintain various human needs is poor and scarcity is accelerating with time Therefore alternative water resources development options such as brackish water desalination and the reuse of treated wastewater is gaining much importance at present The use of these options is expected to be obligatory with time The present work aims to conduct a column study to simulate Pb Cu and Zn ions adsorption on soil and in leachate from two locations near the city of Nablus in order to recommend if these soils are suitable for wastewater application based on simulation results 2 Methodology All chemicals were Analytical Grade reagents deionized water was used for preparation and dilution of metal solutions All bottles and other containers except columns were treated with 1 M HNO 3 solution before being washed with de ionized water and dried 21 E XPERIMENTAL SETUP The experimental setup consisted of 20 PVC columns 4 in diameter and 2 m long Soil samples from the top 100 cm layer soil were collected from the two locations near Nablus city Salim A and Deir Sharaf B before winter 1998 Small stones if any were removed by hand from soil samples and 19 kg of soil was mixed and then placed in each column in layers of 10 cm To allow drainage flow freely without eroding soil from columns a thin layer of gravel and sand was placed in the lower end of the column with a plastic mesh screen at the bottom of the column A plastic container was placed under each column to collect drainage water For each soil three treatments were carried out These treatments represent simulation of irrigation for 2 10 and 20 yr periods in triplicates Two other columns were used as blanks Rainwater was simulated for the blanks by applying 250 mL of rainwater to each column as needed 22 W ATER AND HEAVY METALS APPLICATIONS To each column a solution containing known combinations of Pb 2 Cu2 and Zn 2 was added The concentration of each metal was estimated based on following Table I: 1 Average rainfall evapotranspiration crop irrigation requirements and leaching in Nablus area 2 Volume of irrigation water = 1025 mm m 3 dunum assuming fruit trees will be planted in these areas 3 Volume of leaching water = 403 mm m 3 dunum Considering the column volume the volume of irrigation water for simulation was 805 L per column per year 23 W ATER APPLICATION Two 10 and 20 yr were selected for simulation to study short medium and long terms effects of simulation Details are found in Table I 24 H EAVY METAL APPLICATION Metal solutions were prepared from their nitrate salts and stored in polyethylene bottles The amount of heavy metals applied in irrigation was based on the maximum allowable limit by FAO 10 5 and 10 mg L 1 for Zn2 Cu2 and Pb2 respectively FAO 1980 Details are shown in Table I TABLE I Water and heavy metal application in both soils a Description Years 1 2 10 20 Depth of irrigation water mm 1025 2050 10250 20500 Depth of leachate water mm 403 806 4030 8060 Volume of irrigation water Lcolumn 805 161 805 161 Volume of leachate water Lcolumn 317 634 317 634 Weight of zinc added to each column mg 805 161 805 1609 Weight of copper added to each column mg 4025 80 402 805 Weight of lead added to each column mg 805 161 805 1609 Duration from 28-12-1998 to 23-4-1999 8-5-1999 19-5-1999 a Humidity was 4969 and pan evaporation was 2478 mm day1 25 L EACHATE Water leaching from the columns drained into the plastic containers under the columns To illuminate evaporation of drainage water the containers were covered by plastic sheets Depth of drainage water in the collection containers was monitored and when it reach about 1015 cm this depth equals the height of the small layer of gravel and sand in the bottom of each column water was collected and transferred into storage containers Storage containers were polyethylene bottles of 4 L in volume To each storage bottle 10 mL of 1 M HNO 3 has been added 26 M ETALS IN SOIL Metal concentrations in each soil were measured before treatment After simulation was finished soil was evacuated from the PVC column which was cut into three pieces or 4 cross sections at 10 67 133 and 200 cm heights Each soil patch was dried and the metal ions were extracted from a given weight using NH 4 AcEDTA solutions The extracts were then analyzed for Pb Zn and Cu ions Extractable ions were determined as this research is concerned with the amounts adsorbed on soil surfaces which could be a fraction of total amounts of metals in the soil Adsorbed metals influence plant and environment as they interact with soil solution and plant roots 27 S OIL ANALYSIS Soils were analyzed for chloride carbonate sodium potassium magnesium calcium copper zinc lead phosphorus total dissolved salts TDS organic matter content and pH according to standard procedure Laboratory Manual 1992; Reeve 1994 Concentrations of chlorides sodium potassium magnesium and copper were determined in soil extracts Concentrations of zinc lead and copper were determined from extracts by NH 4 AcEDTA Moisture content particle size distribution bulk density and specific gravity of soils were also measured following standard methods Das Braja Soil Mechanics 1941 28 I NSTRUMENTATION Analysis of Cu Zn and Pb were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer VIDEO 11 which was calibrated using supplied standards prior to each use Electrical conductivity was measured using Conductivity Meter 4010 instrument pH was recorded using a Corning pH Meter Model 12 3 Results and Discussion 31 C HEMICAL ANALYSIS Results of soil chemical analysis are shown in Table II The concentration of total dissolved solids TDS and electrical conductivity readings were low for both soils which indicate that neither soil is saline FAO 1980; McNeal et al 1982 It also indicate that the average precipitation in the area of 600 mm yr 1 is sufficient with time to wash salts from soil especially that both soils showed low sodicity and good permeability in spite of soil clay nature The conductivity readings are supported by the low concentration found for calcium magnesium potassium sodium copper zinc lead phosphorous chlorides and nitrates For all cations and anions tested the found concentration was below the acceptable limits of agricultural soil The relatively high percentage composition of calcium carbonates in soil 13 20 is attributed to the fact that parent materials of these soils were originated from rocks rich in calcium carbonates such as limestone and dolomite The soil pH 78 and the high buffer capacity make soils suitable for most plants as the nutrient availability of most macronutrient is high at this pH though some micronutrient such as iron and manganese demand more acidic soil The low sodicity resulting from low sodium carbonate content indicates that both soils were not alkaline pH 83 Schwab et al 1993 The high calcium carbonate content and the low exchangeable sodium on the surfaces of these soils result in the formation of highly stable aggregates with suitable permeability and hence good drainage ability Sposito 1989 TABLE II Chemical and physical analysis of soil Type of analysis Salim Deir Sharaf Electric conductivity of soil extract mmho cm 1 12 13 Total dissolved solids for soil extracts mg g 1 384 416 Soil extract pH 729 711 Chlorides in soil extract g g1 875 175 Calcium and magnesium in soil extract meq L 1a 115 10 Organic matter content 2 12 Phosphorous in soil extract g g1 460 240 Potassium in soil extract g g1 140 180 Sodium in soil extract g g1 1140 880 CaCO 3 1375 20 Copper extracted by NH 4AcEDTA g g1 484 252 Zinc extracted by NH 4AcEDTA g g1 286 124 Lead extracted by NH 4AcEDTA g g1 266 094 Moisture content 94 85 Specific gravity gm cm 3 26 27 Bulk density gm cm 3 17 18 Silt 432 416 Clay 376 356 Sand 192 228 Soil texture Clay loam Clay loam a 50 g dry soil was extracted with 100 mL NH4 Ac 1 N 32 P HYSICAL ANALYSIS Due to the formation of aggregates sieve analysis was not suitable to determine soil texture Therefore hydrometer analysis was utilized and results are summarized in Table II Soil from both locations was found to contain high clay percentage and classified as clay loam soil based on textural triangle Beaton et al 1975; Fitzpatrick 1986 Both sites from which soil was collected are located within alluvial plains of wadis The low erosion in these plains and the high annual precipitation allow the formation of clay However medium weathering rates are characteristics of the environmental conditions of the area in these plains These conditions result in forming montmorollinite clay minerals in the area This could be easily observed in the Plains of the West Bank and the response of soils there to the weather conditions The most common response of such clay minerals is the formation of cracks in summer dry weather and the expansion of soils in winter wet weather Depth of these cracks exceeds 1 m in these soils and might reach several meters in some deep soil profiles due to the long dry summer which might exceed 6 months The soil bulk density is high due to shrinkage and formation of aggregates during the long months of the dry hot summer season However the specific gravity of soil particles is typical for such soils with calcium carbonates parent materials 33 S OIL ANALYSIS AFTER SIMULATION Application of heavy metals was carried out to simulate their impact on soil and leachate The concentrations of metals were analyzed before and after the simulation experiment and the results are presented in Table III Because the industrial zone is located in the eastern side of Nablus City Soil A was more polluted with the three heavy metals than in Soil B After simulation experiments soil samples were taken from columns at different depths 10 67 133 and 200 cm thereafter analyzed for copper zinc and lead content Table III For all metals employed in the three terms of treatments the metal concentration increased with depth This could be attributed to one or more of the following factors: 1 The experimental setup allows better ion exchange between applied solution and soil particles in the lower part of the column 2 The applied metal concentrations could be low enough to be washed by the running water of irrigation 3 The possibility of short circulating on the walls of the PVC column and through the soil cracks due to wetting and drying conditions and thus preventing ion exchange between soil and applied solution in the upper part of the column Heavy metals residue was calculated for each element in each column Table IV In all cases the residue increased with increasing the concentration of metal applied and simulation period This indicates that heavy metals application in irrigation water is accumulative However Soil A retained more heavy metals than Soil B Although the present results show an increase in heavy metals concentrations with depth the actual increase in the field might be different as a result of different evapotranspiration rates from different soil layers depending on plant physiology and distribution of plant roots 34 L EACHATE ANALYSIS Figure 1 shows the changes in electrical conductivity of soil with time for the long term treatment for both soils The electrical conductivity of soil was enhanced with duration of treatment whereas salinity decreased TABLE III Concentrations of copper zinc and lead in soil at different depths at the end of simulation period Column Residue concentration in soil batches g g1 Total Lower Middle Upper mg Cu 2 yr Salim 1111107 363046 345012 11514977 D Sharaf 1000007 203016 225008 9048153 10 yr Salim 3761047 445058 357059 28897984 D Sharaf 3649077 303074 267084 26727136 20 yr Salim 8161081 503113 450082 577181170 D Sharaf 7867019 338102 283055 53057 938 Zn 2 yr Salim 1989036 167022 180016 1479 291 D Sharaf 1741099 099041 084034 1219 507 10 yr Salim 9394135 204015 187027 6197 991 D Sharaf 9129105 130005 109015 5933 593 20 yr Salim 18133185 415006 229022 11892 1343 D Sharaf 17013799 185049 143017 10892 2125 Pb 2 yr Salim 1861099 251008 229005 1482 58 D Sharaf 1775062 175066 137017 1322 81 10 yr Salim 9069072 353008 304017 6159 479 D Sharaf 8897071 203024 159030 5864 140 20 yr Salim 18460053 557081 336026 12257 689 D Sharaf 176641129 275032 209030 11494 6852 The amount of heavy elements in leachate Table IV was also dependent on the simulation period as expected However no significant difference in the amount of heavy elements was found in leachate from the two soils This could result from similar physical and chemical characteristics of the two soils Therefore their selfpurification capacities are also similar The threat to groundwater if happens will rather depend on the hydrogeological characteristics of the two areas Mass balance of metal requires that the added amount in irrigation water plus that present initially in soil should equal to the metal residue in soil plus that in TABLE IV Mass balance of copper zinc and lead Actual Mass balance calculations Initial Applied Leachate Residue mg mg mg mg Cu 2 yr Salim 11514 9196 8000 221 16975 D Sharaf 9048 4788 8000 325 12464 10 yr Salim 28897 9196 40200 3845 45551 D Sharaf 26727 4788 40200 3943 41045 20 yr Salim 57718 9196 80500 4512 84523 D Sharaf 53757 4788 80500 4661 80627 Zn 2 yr Salim 1479 5437 161 101 21436 D Sharaf 1219 2355 161 141 18314 10 yr Salim 6197 5437 805 1707 84230 D Sharaf 5933 2355 805 1812 81043 20 yr Salim 11892 5437 1609 6633 15970 D Sharaf 10982 2355 1609 8232 15502 Pb 2 yr Salim 1482 50578 161 061 21096 D Sharaf 1322 17805 161 101 17780 10 yr Salim 6159 50578 805 1908 83649 D Sharaf 5864 17805 805 1967 80588 20 yr Salim 12257 50578 1609 3318 16231 D Sharaf 11494 17805 1609 3426 15925 leachate Table IV The difference between the amount of metal found by mass balance calculations and that found experimentally in soil especially for two years treatment could be explained by one or more of the followings: 1 Precipitation of metal ions as insoluble salts 2 Adsorption of heavy metals on the columns surfaces 3 The variation in temperature during the experimental period Figure 1 Electric conductivity mmho cm1 of the leachate versus date of experiment for the 20 yr term treatment 4 Conclusions The two soils were found to have similar chemical and physical properties and thus showed similar response to simulation experiments The nature of metal soil properties and the metal loading level affected redistribution of metals in soil The three metals used showed cumulative effect on soil and in leachate and thus the possibility of groundwater contamination does exist The concentrations of these elements and other heavy metals should be reduced as much as possible and industrial waste should be either separated or treated before dumped in domestic wastewater The clay nature of soils and their high content of montmorollinites were responsible for the formation of large and deep cracks due to wetting and drying weather conditions As a result cation exchange between soil and running solution was not allowed which reduces self-purification capacity of soil Continuous monitoring of wastewater soil and groundwater qualities are essential for any sustainable reuse of wastewater in Palestine Acknowledgements Authors are thankful to An Najah N University for financial support of the present work References AWWA American Water Works Association: 1990 Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook for Community Water Supplies 4th ed McGraw Hill Aziz O Inam A and Siddigi R H: 1996 Longterm effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater J Environ Sci Health Part A 31 25952620 Beaton James Tisdale Samue and Nelson Werner: 1975 Soil Fertility and Fertilizers Macmillan New York Chatzoudis G K and Rigas F P: 1998 Polymeric conditioners effects on leaching of nitrogen fertilizers in soil columns J Environ Sci Health A 33 765782 Das Braja Soil Mechanics: 1941 Laboratory Manual Engineering Press Inc USA Edward Martin: 1991 Martin Edward Technologies for Small Water and Wastewater Systems Environmental Engineering Series Van Nostrand Reinhold New York Environmental Protection: 2000 Environmental Protection of the Shared IsraeliPalestinian Mountain Aquifer Final Report of a Research Project Conducted Between 1994 and 1999 Jointly by the University of Michigan The Hebrew University and the Palestine Consultancy Group April 2000 FAO: 1980 Soil and Plant Testing as a Basis of Fertilizer Recommend of Ions Farid M S M Atta S Rashid M Munnink J O and Platenburge R: 1993 Impact of reuse domestic wastewater for irrigation on ground water quality water science and technology WSTED 4 27 147157 Fitzpatrick E A: 1986 An Introduction to Soil Science 2nd ed John Wiley Sons New York pp 8083 Haddad M: 1990 State of the Environment in the Occupied Palestinian Territories A Study Report Presented the Conference of the Management of the Environment in the Mediterranean and Sponsored by the Center for Engineering and Planning Nicosia April 1990 Haddad M: 1993 Disposal of Wastewater in the Occupied Palestinian Territories Shuun Tanmawiyyeh Vol III No 3 September 1993 Haddad M: 1994 Effects of zinc on the growth and uptake of zinc by green beans J Environ Sci Health Part A Environmental Science and Engineering A29 4 637645 Haddad M Mizyed N and Abu-Quad H: 1999 Individual and Combined Effects of Lead Zinc and Cadmium on the Growth and Uptake of Metals by Eggplant Proceedings of the Dahlia Greidinger International Symposium: Nutrient Management under Salinity and Water Stress Haifa March 1999 pp 183194 Haddad M: 2000 Evaluation of Ground Water Quality in Northern Parts of the West Bank in Environmental Protection of the Shared IsraeliPalestinian Mountain Aquifer Second Annual Report of a Research Project Conducted 1996 Jointly by the University of Michigan The Hebrew University and the Palestine Consultancy Group April 2000 Laboratory Manual: 1992 Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Water Wastewater and Soil 2nd ed VCH Weinheim New York pp 4345 Laxen D P H and Harrison R M: 1977 The Highway as a source of water pollution: An appraisal with the heavy metal lead Water Research 11 111 Lebourg A Sterckeman T Ciesielski H and Proix N: 1998 Trace metal speculation in three unbuffered salt solutions used to assess their bioavailability in soil J Environ Qual 27 584 590 Manahan S E: 1990 Hazardous Waste Chemistry Toxicology and Treatment Lewis Publishers Chelsea Michigan McAnally Anthony Pinto Angela and Flora Joseph: 1997 Evaluation of lead and copper corrosion control techniques J Environ Sci Health A32 3153 McNeal B L Brester E and Carter D: 1982 Saline and Sodic Soils Principles DynamicsModeling Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Mendoza C A Cortes G and Munoz D: 1996 Heavy metal pollution in soils and sediments of Kural developing district 063 Mexico environment Toxical Qual 11 327333 Moatgomery H: 1988 Treatment and Use of Sewage Effluent for Irrigation Butterworth London pp 129135 Radi S Haddad M and El-Katib I: 1988 Effect of nickel treatment on the growth of eggplant Environ Sci Engineer A234 369381 Reeve Roger: 1994 Environmental Analysis John Wiley Sons New York pp 6870 Schwab Glenn Fangmeier Delmar and ElliotWilliam: 1993 Soil and Water Management Systems John Wiley Sons Inc New York Toronto Selim Magdi and Iskandar Iskander: 1992 Engineering Aspects of Metal-Waste Management Lewis Publishers London Sposito Garrison: 1989 The Chemistry of Soils Oxford University Press New York wate3292tex; Water Air Soil Pollution Volume 146 Numbers 1-4 June 2003 Education for international cooperation: the Middle East water management case Articleshttp:dprnfssuunlnirp15pdfInstitutional Framework for Regional Cooperation in the Development of Water Supply and Demand in the Middle East ArticlesWater is and most likely will continue to be one of the main concerns and potential causes of instability in the Middle East ME The contribution of the existing renewable water resources is limited and can not fulfill the long-term projected gap between water supply and demand for most of the countries in the ME An integrated regional approach for fulfilling this gap was preferred A regional institutional framework was proposed for the implementation of this integrated regional approach and consists of a regional water board operating through three units for technical implementation and management aspects of project and activities An analysis of the regional water supply and demand development the design and policy making of the proposed institution technology and water markets cooperation actors and beneficiaries finances and expected obstacles and constraints to the establishment and sustainable operation of the proposed institution are included JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 729 - 738 An Evaluation of Public Concerns About Water Management in the Palestinian Territory Pre, During, and Post the National Uprising ArticlesWe have evaluated the extent of public concerns about water management in the Palestinian Territory PT through a survey of the main Palestinian newspaper over the last thirteen years divided in three periods: pre 19841987 during 19881991 and post national uprising period 19921996 The public concern in the PT about various water management aspects was clear and influenced by the prevailing political conditions indicating 1 poor concerns in the first and second period where full Israeli military control of the PT and harsh practices prevailed with relatively more emphasis on regional water issues and 2 extensive-strong concerns in the third period when the peace process started and a partial lift of some of the Israeli water practices took place along with an increased freedom in expressing public concerns which was granted with more emphasis on local issues and problems Lack and limitation of water available to Palestinians alternative solutions and water quality and pollution control constituted the overwhelming majority of the topics of concern to the public for the three periods studied Palestinian concerns were always greater than regional ones for the three periods and all of the topics considered Public concern in the PT about all other water management aspects was poor and negligible especially in the first two periods A massive increase in public concern has been observed in the third period in which the public expressed their concern over most water management aspects indicating a possible change in public attitude toward water and water management and reflecting the change of the political status by the start of the peace process and the signing of the peace agreements Water Resources Management Volume 12 Number 5 October 1998 Identification of Joint Management Structures for Shared Aquifers: A Cooperative Palestinian-Israeli Effort ArticlesIn this study the authors provide an approach for building joint management institutions over time for groundwater and present some of the lessons that may be gleaned from their collaborative experience Although the papers focus is limited to the Israeli-Palestinian situation the conclusions reached in this study can be applicable to other settings The paper begins by describing the process by which the joint management institutions were identified This process is described at two levels: one the course that the team went through; and two the analytical approach by which these structures were identified The authors then describe the outcome of the first phase of the teams work namely a flexible-sequential Capacity building structure In the second phase of the teams work this structure was further scrutinized given the geopolitical changes in the region and its accumulated experience In addition issues that did not receive sufficient or any attention in the first phase were discussed in the second phase As a result a number of issues and problems that may adversely affect the implementation of joint management structures were identified These are described in the fourth section A brief discussion of the process and outcomes is presented in the 11Th section of the paper Particular attention is given to the possible role and limitations of international organizations in this process as seen from the local ie Israeli and Palestinian perspective While the discussion focuses on the Israeli-Palestinian case the process arid results are likely to be applicable in a much wider array of cases including at the sub-national level http:booksgooglecombooks?id=CR7aWExv240C