An-Najah Blogs :: Jamal Abu Omer Agri http://blogs.najah.edu/author/agri-18 An-Najah Blogs :: Jamal Abu Omer Agri en-us Mon, 26 Oct 2020 10:46:52 IST Mon, 26 Oct 2020 10:46:52 IST webmaster@najah.edu webmaster@najah.edu Prevalence of the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in layer flocks in four districts in northern West Bank, Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Prevalence-of-the-red-mite-Dermanyssus-gallinae-in-layer-flocks-in-four-districts-in-northern-West-Bank-Palestine-1Published Articles ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to investigate the prevalence of the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms in four districts of northern West Bank Palestine The four districts were: Nablus Tulkarm Tubas and Jenin A total of 225 layer farms were investigated for infection with the parasite during the period from September 2009 to August 2010 The highest prevalence of the red mite was observed in the district of Tulkarm 183 255 327 and 473 for the districts of Nablus Jenin Tubas and Tulkarm respec-tively which can be explained by the hot humid climate in the district and insufficient cleaning Infection with the red mite was highest in sum-mer 438 and lowest in winter 12 The high infection rates observed in this study reflect the poor management and housing conditions char- acteristic of layer farms in the study region Keywords: Prevalence; Red Mite; Layer Farms; Prevalence of the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in layer flocks in four districts in northern West Bank, Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Prevalence-of-the-red-mite-Dermanyssus-gallinae-in-layer-flocks-in-four-districts-in-northern-West-Bank-PalestinePublished Articles ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to investigate the prevalence of the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms in four districts of northern West Bank Palestine The four districts were: Nablus Tulkarm Tubas and Jenin A total of 225 layer farms were investigated for infection with the parasite during the period from September 2009 to August 2010 The highest prevalence of the red mite was observed in the district of Tulkarm 183 255 327 and 473 for the districts of Nablus Jenin Tubas and Tulkarm respec-tively which can be explained by the hot humid climate in the district and insufficient cleaning Infection with the red mite was highest in sum-mer 438 and lowest in winter 12 The high infection rates observed in this study reflect the poor management and housing conditions char- acteristic of layer farms in the study region Keywords: Prevalence; Red Mite; Layer Farms; Performance of Awassi Lambs Fed a Citrus Pulphttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Performance-of-Awassi-Lambs-Fed-a-Citrus-PulpPublished ArticlesAbstract This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different silages on performance of fattening lambs and nutrients digestibility Sixteen uniform males of Awassi lambs were used in feeding trial that was lasted for 77 days The trial was followed by a digestion trial Lambs were divided into four experimental groups during the trial and had free access to water Three types of silage were prepared using wheat straw WS olive cake OC and citrus pulp CP The three by-products were mixed in the following ratios for silage 1 60:27:13 For silage 2 20:54:26 and for silage 3 0:48:52 respectively The forages were offered to lambs along with fixed amount of a commercial fattening concentrate which was 78 of total rations fed on air dry basis Silage type had no effect on lambs weight development and lambs average daily gain The feed conversion efficiency was the highest P05 in lambs fed the silage 1 However the cost of gain was the lowest P05 in lambs fed the silage 3 Values of nutrient digestibility was increased P005 for all types of silages especially when wheat straw was excluded from the rations The results of this study indicate that silages of wheat straw olive cake and citrus pulp can be used for lambs in fattening operations Effects of Phytase on Broilers Performance and Body Status of Phosphorushttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effects-of-Phytase-on-Broilers-Performance-and-Body-Status-of-PhosphorusPublished Articles This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on broilers performance nutrient digestibility carcass cuts and body status of Ca and P A total of 200 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in the experiment Birds were partitioned into five experimental groups of 40 birds Each treatment was composed of 4 replicates with 10 birds in each The control group was fed a commercial starter and finisher diet The second treatment group was fed a phosphorus deficient diet while the third fourth and fifth treatments groups were fed a phosphorus deficient diets plus the microbial phytase Phytase enzyme was incorporated at levels 1000 2000 and 3000 PUkg feed for the last three treatments respectively In the last week of experiment four birds from each replicate were used in metabolic trial However at time of termination of the experiment the same birds were killed for carcass cuts and tibia ash content investigations Results of the experiment showed that the addition of phytase enzyme to P- deficient diets significantly improved P05 broilers performance However feed intake feed conversion ratio and tibia minerals were significantly increased P005 in birds fed P- deficient diets supplemented with phytase Phytase supplementation had no significant effect on carcass cuts and dressing percent compared to birds fed the low P diets Also results of this investigation showed that phytase enzyme increased P005 the digestibility of dry matter crude protein and ash Effect of Feeding Sesame Oil Cake on Performance, Milk and Cheese Quality of Anglo-Nubian Goatshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effect-of-Feeding-Sesame-Oil-Cake-on-Performance-Milk-and-Cheese-Quality-of-Anglo-Nubian-GoatsPublished Articles This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding sesame oil cake SOC on milk and cheese quality of Anglo-Nubian goats Sixteen lactating 20 days-in-milk Anglo- Nubian goats were used in the experiment that lasted for 60 days Goats were divided into 4 dietary treatment groups of 4 goats in each and the goats were distributed between the groups in a way they represent age and lactation stage Goats were housed in pens of suitable size and were managed as any other commercial goat flock The animals had free access to water Straw was fed at rate of 1 of live body weight Four types of dietary treatment were prepared using SOC The first diet was the control and the other three diets contained: 5 10 and 15 SOC respectively Animals fed twice daily and were milked during the feeding time Milk yield MY was recorded daily and samples were taken for chemical analysis Cheese was made on a monthly basis and samples were taken for sensory evaluation for flavor and texture Incorporation of SOC in goats diets at levels of 10 and 15 caused an increase P005 in MY compared to control and 5 SOC Feeding SOC at all levels tested had a positive effect P005 on goats milk fat MF However the highest MF percentage was detected in milk of goats fed with 15 SOC Sesame Oil Cake had variable effects on milk protein MP where the highest MP content was from milk of goats fed with 5 cake Both total solids TS and solids non fat SNF were increased P005 due to feeding different levels of SOC compared to control Similar trends were observed on cheese composition in regard to fat content where feeding SOC at different levels increased significantly P005 cheese fat content compared to control Other cheese components such as protein and ash were not affected by SOC feeding Sensory results showed that flavor of cheese from goats consuming 10 and 15 SOC P005 was better than cheese from the other groups However an opposite trend was observed regarding cheese texture The cheese from goats fed the control diet had P005 a better texture The results of this study indicate that SOC can be used in goats diets during lactation season Similarly using SOC in goats diets proved to be economically feasible PREVALENCE OF MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION IN COWS AND SMALL RUMINANTS IN THE NORTH OF PALESTINEhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/PREVALENCE-OF-MICROORGANISMS-ASSOCIATED-WITH-INTRAMAMMARY-INFECTION-IN-COWS-AND-SMALL-RUMINANTS-IN-THE-NORTH-OF-PALESTINEPublished ArticlesThis study was undertaken to determine aetiology and prevalence of subclinical mastitis in manually and mechanically milked animals in the north of Palestine Milk samples from animals with bacterial infection of the mammary gland showed significantly higher somatic cell count SCC than did the corresponding milk from healthy animals which 1420100 X103 cellsml; vs 33035 XIO3 cellsml; 1650155 XIO3 cellsml vs 49040 XIO3 cellsml; 52050 XIO3 cellsml vs 14025 X10J cellsml for ewes goats and cows respectively The prevalence of bacterial isolation of the milk from goats n = 25 sheep n = 40 and cows n=220 from several major herds was determined Culturing for bacteria revealed that 52 725 and 591 of tested goats sheep and cows had subclinical mastitisCarcass Composition and Visceral Organ Mass of Broiler Chicks Fed Different Levels of Olive Pulphttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Carcass-Composition-and-Visceral-Organ-Mass-of-Broiler-Chicks-Fed-Different-Levels-of-Olive-PulpPublished ArticlesThe current investigation was conducted to study the effects of olive pulp on the carcass composition gastrointestinal tract and visceral organ mass of broiler chicks A total of 250 one-day-old chicks were used in this research and were divided into five experimental groups with five replicates in each Olive pulp was incorporated in four of the experimental groups at rates of 25 50 75 and 100 gkg in both starter and finisher feeds to replace similar amounts of maize Diets were fed for 35 days At the end of the experiment four birds of each group were slaughtered in similar routine followed in regular slaughterhouses Regression analysis linear and quadratic showed that level of olive pulp had no significant effects on visceral organ mass gastrointestinal tract weight carcass cuts carcass composition and dressing percent However chicks consuming 100 g olive pulpkg had heaviest P005 average live weightsEffect of Different Ionophore Treatments on Some Rumen Metabolic Measures of Steershttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effect-of-Different-Ionophore-Treatments-on-Some-Rumen-Metabolic-Measures-of-SteersPublished ArticlesTwelve 380 kg beef steers were fed a 90 concentrate cracked corn- based diet at 85 of ad libitum Steers were divided into three daily ionophore treatment groups Monensin - Tylan MT Lasalosid L or rotation of MT and L MTL Each daily dosage of Monensin and Tylan was 27 and 11 mg per BW7S respectively Lasolosid additions were given at 3 mg per BW75 daily Ruminal samplings were taken on d 0 2 5 16 and 45 after beginning ionophore treatments A conventional digestibility trial was conducted with nine steers three per treatment at day 34 of feeding the ionophore and lasted for six days Digestible energy 837 urinary losses 33 of total feed energy and the ratio of MEDE 90 did not differ across treatments Methane losses were from 17 to 37 less on d 2 and 5 for MT and MTL treatments but increased quadratically PO05 on d 16 and 45 so that production exceeded d 0 levels Treatment L did not affect methane production Acetate to propionate and to butyrate ratios were reduced PO05 by MT and MTL with no effect for L addition These data suggest that methane suppression does not persist beyond two weeks of ionophore treatment and a daily rotation of ionophores had no digestive or metabolic advantage over feeding MT daily Further research is recommended to investigate the proper dose componation and duration of ionophores supplementation in order to achieve the best results out of the fattening operationsGROWTH PERFORMANCE AND VISCERAL ORGAN MASS OF AWASSI LAMBS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOME AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS SILAGEhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/GROWTH-PERFORMANCE-AND-VISCERAL-ORGAN-MASS-OF-AWASSI-LAMBS-FED-DIFFERENT-LEVELS-OF-SOME-AGRICULTURAL-BY-PRODUCTS-SILAGEPublished ArticlesThis research was conducted to investigate the effect of utilization mixture of some agricultural by - products silage poultry manure wheat straw tomato fruits on the visceral organ mass of Awassi lambs A total of 20 Awassi lambs an average body weight of 215Kg were used in this experiment Lambs were divided into four groups of five lambs each Lambs in the first group were fed a commercial concentrate feed mixture Lambs in the second third and fourth groups were with fed the commercial concentrate feed beside silage with rate of 15 30 and 45 respectively Silage was fed instead of the same amounts of the concentrate feed Lambs were fed their rations individually for 60 days Type of diet had growth performance and variable effects on visceral organs Lambs fed diet containing 15 silage appeared to heavier P005 trachea and lowest P005 weight of kidney compared to lambs in other groups Also they had the lowest PO05 weights of the omasum wet tissue omasum and abomasums wet and dry contents However lambs fed 45 silage diet had the heaviest p005 weights of the above itemsEffect of Olive Cake on Layers Performance and Egg Qualityhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effect-of-Olive-Cake-on-Layers-Performance-and-Egg-QualityPublished ArticlesTwo hundred and forty white Hy-Line layers at sixty two weeks of age were used in the experiment four treatments sixty birds in each that lasted for eight weeks to evaluate olive cake OC as a source of nutrients Yellow corn of the diet was partially replaced by olive cake at levels of 0 65975 or 13 The results obtained could be summarized as follows: 1 There was a significant P005 decrease in final body weight when olive take was fed at level of 13 2 Egg production egg weight feed consumption and feed conversion were significantly P005 decrease when olive cake was used at level of 13 3 Olive cake had no significant effect on egg quality measurements 4 It seems that replacing of olive cake up to 975 olive cake in layers diets had the highest relative economic efficiency 5 Levels of cholesterol decreased significantly P005 in blood plasma of layers consumed diets including 65 975 or 13 olive cake However the levels of plasma total protein albumin globulin creatinine GOT and GPT were insignificantly affected with olive cake inclusion Therefor it could be concluded that olive cake can be used in layer diets at levels up to 975 on the expense of dietary corn without detrimental effects on their productive performance Response of Broiler Chicks to a High Olive Pulp Diet Supplemented with Two Antibioticshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Response-of-Broiler-Chicks-to-a-High-Olive-Pulp-Diet-Supplemented-with-Two-AntibioticsPublished ArticlesA total of 210 twenty-day-old broiler chicks were used in this programme to investigate the performance feed intake digestibility and visceral organ mass of broiler chicks fed with high level of olive pulp supplemented with two antibiotics: streptomycin and tylosin The two antibiotics were added to supply 150 mgkg of the active ingredient Chicks which consumed the medicated dietshad more p005 gain compared to chicks which consumed the basal diet However streptomycin caused more p005 gain compared to tylosin Antibiotics had no effect on feed intake The chicks that consumed the antibiotics had heavier p005 weights of edible inedible organs and small intestine but lower weights of large intestine and cecum The digestibility of dry matter crude protein and nitrogen free extract increased p005 in chicks fed with the medicated diets compared to the chicks fed with the basal diet It is concluded that antibiotic supplementation had a positive effect on chicks performance and digestibility International Refereed Research Journal -Dirasat Jordan; Agricultural Science v30 2 P 137-142 May 2003Effects of feeding different levels of sesame oil cake on performance and digestibility of Awassi lambshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effects-of-feeding-different-levels-of-sesame-oil-cake-on-performance-and-digestibility-of-Awassi-lambsPublished ArticlesThis experiment investigated the effect of feeding different levels of sesame oil cake on the intake and digestibility of DM CP crude fiber and crude fat in Awassi fattening lambs Sesame oil cake was incorporated into lamhs rafions at levels of 10 and 20 to replace similar percentages of barley and soybean The results showed that the high level of sesame oil cake inclusion decreased DM and protein intake however it increased P005 crude fiber crude fat and copper intake Addition of 20 sesame oil cake also increased P005 the digestibility of CP and crude fiber Sesame oil cake resulted in more daily gain and better feed conversion efficiency compared to control The results indicated that addition of sesame oil cake to Awassi lambs rations had some economical advantages in digestibility and performance compared to traditional fattening rations The higher cost of gain was in lambs fed the commercial fattening feed Sesame oil cake reduced P005 cost of gain This was because of the low costs of rations incorporated with sesame oil cake Small Ruminant Research Volume 46 Issues 2-3 November 2002 Pages 187-190 http:dxdoiorg101016S0921-44880200173-6Utilization of corrugated cardboard in fattening rations of Awassi lambshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Utilization-of-corrugated-cardboard-in-fattening-rations-of-Awassi-lambsPublished ArticlesA feeding trial was conducted with fattening Awassi lambs using corrugated carton to study the nutritional effect of this by-product and to search for low cost rations Thirty male lambs were assigned to three dietary treatments The control diet was composed of 40 barley 16 soybean meal 12 wheat bran 1 limestone 1 salt 1 lambs premix and 29 wheat straw To each of the experimental rations carton was incorporated instead of wheat straw at levels of 10 and 20 respectively Cardboard was treated with urea prior to use The lamb feeding trial extended for a period of 40 days Average initial live weights were 296 299 and 295kg for each of the three groups respectively Mean daily gains were 210 200 and 205g per day for each of the three groups respectively Average feed conversion rates were 63 67 and 68kg feed per kg gain and the feed costs per kg gain were US 094 087 and 074 for each of the three treatments respectively The results of the experiment indicated that the low levels of carton in lambs fattening rations had no disadvantages on performance compared to the control ration used The experiment showed that under current feed prices in the Palestinian Authority replacing up to 20 of wheat straw with carton proves to be beneficial and economically feasible Small Ruminant Research Volume 42 Issue 2 November 2001 Pages 167-170 Utilization of Olive Pulp in Broiler Rationshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Utilization-of-Olive-Pulp-in-Broiler-RationsPublished ArticlesThis research was conducted to study the effects of different levels of olive pulp on body weight gain feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of broiler chicks A total of 160 day-old chicks were used in this research and were divided into five experimental groups with four replicates in each Olive pulp was incorporated in four of the experimental groups at rates of 25 5 75 and 10 in both starter and finisher feeds to replace similar rates of yellow corn Chicks were fed these diets during the entire feeding trial which lasted for 35 days Weight gain of chicks was the same in chicks consuming up to 75 of olive pulp However weight gain of chicks fed the level of 10 olive pulp had the lowest significant p005 weight gain Similar trends were observed in chicks for feed intake and feed conversion efficiency The research showed that olive pulp could be considered as potential low cost feed for broilers An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences A ISSN: 1727-2114 Volume 15 2001 Pages: 133-144FEED INDUSTRY IN PALESTINEhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/FEED-INDUSTRY-IN-PALESTINEPublished ArticlesThere are sixteen feed mills in Palestine with a total capacity of about 25000 tons per month as well as three others under construction with a total capacity of 5500 tons monthly However despite the expansion in feed milling Israelifeed-mills still dominate the local market This study aimed to examine the reasons for this and the potential of the local feed industry in the context of open regional trade Palestinian feed mills vary considerably in their production capacity and in the type of machinery used In many cases however it is observed that feed mills purchased used machinery procured from the Israeli factories This may have important consequences for the productivity of these mills and their cost structure as well as the quality of manufactured feed Owners of local feed mills rationalize this by pointing to their very limited financial resources and the small size of the domestic markets Another important point in this context is that local feed mills import all their raw materials from foreign sources but their storage capacity is noticeably limited around 9000 tons again on account of their weak financial base This has added to their production cost and severely under minded competitiveness vis-a-vis Israeli manufacturers The aggregate demand for various types of livestock feed as of early 1999 is estimated at 25000 tons per month 17000 tones for the West Bank and 8000 tons for the Gaza Strip In addition the consumption of barley is estimated at about 8000 tons per month Local feed mills currently produce about 11000 tons per month which accounts for only 25 of poultry feed and 55 of other livestock feed This study examined the reasons for the low share of local feed mills and came up with the following factors 1 Several factories produce only mash feed whereas the demand is stronger for feed in pellets and crumbled forms Much factories are unable to buy the machinery needed for this purpose 2 There is a wide spread belief that local feed is of fluctuating and generally inferior quality especially in comparison with Israeli feed 3 Credit facilities provided by the Israeli firms are much more relaxed than those available inlocal factories The study demonstrated the need to introduce major improvements in the local feed industry in an effort to improve its competitive standingThe Effect of Different levels of olive pulp on the feed intake and digestibility of broilershttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/The-Effect-of-Different-levels-of-olive-pulp-on-the-feed-intake-and-digestibility-of-broilersPublished ArticlesOlive cake is one of the most available by-products of local farming in Palestine estimated at 36000 tonsyear Ministry of Agriculture 1999 This amount is of great importance as a potential feed component when used at certain levels in livestock rations The feeding costs in Palestine make up more than 70 of the total production costs in any livestock operation Therefore it is highly recommended to incorporate raw materials and farm by-products in ration formulation as possible Shqueir and Qawasmi 1994 Some quality characteristics of eggs marketed in North of West Bank (Palestine)http://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Some-quality-characteristics-of-eggs-marketed-in-North-of-West-Bank-PalestinePublished ArticlesA total of 720 eggs were purchased from three different places : supermarkets public markets and broiler selling shops were examined for shell cleanliness Haugh unit yolk color and shell thickness Price per kg egg mass was also calculated for the three different consumer channels mentioned above Source of eggs found to have a significant effect on egg weight Hugh unit and price per kg egg mass Eggs obtained from super markets had significantly P 005 the lowest weight the highest P 001 percentage of weight class small and pewee and stained checked eggs Similarly eggs from super markets had the lowest interior quality However these eggs were of more shell thickness and the more prices per egg mass unit Most of the eggs tested were of grade AA in regard to the interior quality However eggs obtained from the broiler selling shops had the highest percentages of the jumbo and the extra large gradesEffect of Feeding Treated Wheat Straw With Urea on Growing Frisin Calves in Palestinehttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effect-of-Feeding-Treated-Wheat-Straw-With-Urea-on-Growing--Frisin-Calves-in-PalestinePublished ArticlesA feeding trial was conducted for fattening frisian calves using treated wheat straw with urea to study the nutritional effect and search for higher income A feeding trial lasted for 168 days with ten growing Frisian calves averaging 210 kg tow similar groups Calves were divided into two groups first group fed ration A 75 concentrate mix plus 25 untreated wheat straw while the second group fed ration B 75 concentrate mix plus 25 treated wheat straw with 2 urea Average daily gain was significantly higher for calves fed ration B compared to those fed ration A Ration A It was 73 and 86 kg for ration A and B respectively Animals fed rations containing treated wheat straw with urea were significantly p05 better in feed conversion than those fed untreated wheat straw It is concluded that the weight gain obtained through the treatment of wheat straw with urea will increase the income of local farmers However under the current feed and meat prices in Palestine urea treatment proves to be economically feasibleEffects of Urea Feeding on Milk Characteristics ofBaladi Goats ANhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effects-of-Urea-Feeding-on-Milk-Characteristics-ofBaladi-Goats-ANPublished ArticlesTwo feeding trials were conducted on local goats to investigate the effect of urea on both quantity and quality of milk In the first trial two groups of Iactating goats were fed similar commercial feed plus 1 urea in the feed of one group In the second trial same number of pregnant goats were used to investigate urea feeding on colostrum and milk quality Urea addition in experiment 1 had no significant effect on total milk production total milk protein casein but significantly P 05 increased total solids and milk fat In the second experiment urea had similar effects as in the first experiment Colostrum composition was not affected by urea treatmentEstimation of Wastes Produced by Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Poultry and its Reuse in the West Bankhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Estimation-of-Wastes-Produced-by-Cattle-Sheep-Goats-and-Poultry-and-its-Reuse-in-the-West-BankPublished ArticlesQuantities of wastes produced by cattle sheep goats and p ml try in the West Bank during the period 1985-1993 were estimate These wastes include methane emitted to the atmosphere directly by mimals or resulted from manure fermentation and animals solid waste- The amounts of methane gas produced by cattle sheep and goats were estimated at 665 and 179 million m3 for the years 1993 and 2000 respectively Solid wastes produced by all animals were estimated at 124 and 285 million tons for the years 1993 and 2000 respectively Recommendations and suggestions for the reuse of animal wastes are provided in this studyThe Effect of Monensin, Lasalocid and a monensin/lasalocid Rotation of Fungal Population in the Rumen of Concentrate and Roughage Fed Steershttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/The-Effect-of-Monensin-Lasalocid-and-a-monensinlasalocid-Rotation-of-Fungal-Population-in-the-Rumen-of-Concentrate-and-Roughage-Fed-SteersPublished ArticlesTwo studies using three ruminally cannulated beef steers in the first one fed a roughage diet 98 chopped alfalfa at maintenance and 12 beef steers in the second fed limited ration 85 adlib intake composed of 90 concentrate diet 80 cracked corn 10 soybean meal and 10 chopped alfalfa were allotted to treatment groups receiving a supplement of either monensin tylan m275 ppm 11 ppm lasalocid 33 ppm or a daily rotation of the two ionophores to examine the effect of the ionophores on rumen population of anaerobic fungi over time and the relationship between fungal numbers and methane production In the first study nylon bags containing leaf blades of 5mm length were incubated for 24 hrs in the rumen Samples were counted on days 0 1 3 5 7 11 14 16 21 22 23 24 and 28 Fungi sporangia on blades were counted microscopically 00x Study 2 steers were assigned as above and after methane production was measured using indirect respiration calorimetry samples of rumen contents were collected by stomach tube pretreatment and on days 2 S 16 and 45 after initiation of ionophore treatments Differences of fungi numbers over time and between treatments were not significant yet there was a trend of initial ionophore inhibition on fungi with limited evidence of adaptation over time there was a positive correlation P 005 between fungi numbers and methane production These results indicate a fungalmethanogen interactionتأثير مستويات مختلفة من جفت الزيتون على اوزان مكونات الجهاز الهضمي و ملحقاته في خراف العواسي المسمنةhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/articlePublished ArticlesUtilization of olive cake in fattening rations of Awassi lambshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Utilization-of-olive-cake-in-fattening-rations-of-Awassi-lambsPublished ArticlesRevue de Medecine Veterinaire France v 1464 p 273-276 Avr 1995Layer Farms in the West-Bankhttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Layer-Farms-in-the-West-BankPublished ArticlesThere was an important increase of the number of laying hen farms in the West Bank In the last decade the number of laying hens has become seven times as much and consequently egg production sector increased its contribution in total animal production sector Specifically in 1982 egg production contributed 95 of total poultry production 24 of the total animal production and 1 of total agriculture value Whereas in 1990 these percentages expanded to respectively 37 9 and 4 In the last four years several factors started to affect farms of laying hens This study gives a systematic investigation of the process achieved through our product enlargement obstacles faced this progress and then puts a future plan to improve these projects together with recommendations which may help overcome difficulties related to local egg productionVisceral Organ Mass Of Lambs Fed Four Roughage Dietshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Visceral-Organ-Mass-Of-Lambs-Fed-Four-Roughage-DietsPublished ArticlesTwenty-eight lambs averaging 45 kg live weight were divided among four roughage dietary treatment: grass hay corn silage alfalfa and oat hay The diets contained a minimum of 12 crude protein and provided 10 over the required energy for maintenance Lambs were fed twice a day 0800 and 1700 for 28 days Animals were weighed at 10-d intervals at 0700 prior to being fed that morning At the end of the feeding period the lambs were slaughtered and the weights of fat-free gastrointestinal tract segments their content and other organs were taken and expressed as gkg of empty body weight EBW Sampled of the rumen and small intestine were separated into mucosal and aonmucosai serosal fractions No single forage diet consistently increased the weights of all visceral organs However lambs fed the 70 alfalfa hay has 12 heavier liver and lung weights p 05 compared to lambs receiving other treatments and 11 heavier small intestine weights compared to the oat and silage diets The grass hay diets resulted in lambs with 55 heavier cecum dry weights P 05 compared to other roughage sources Lambs fed silage diets had 7 heavier rumen mucosa wet and dry weights The roughage soursc had no effect on total rumen omasum large intestine and total tract weights or contentsEffects of different strategies of protein feedings on performance and visceral organ mass of Awassi lambshttp://blogs.najah.edu/staff/agri-18/article/Effects-of-different-strategies-of-protein-feedings-on-performance-and-visceral-organ-mass-of-Awassi-lambsOn Going Researches Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different crude protein CP feeding strategies on the general performance feed intake and visceral organs weights of Awassi lambs Forty eight male Awassi lambs were used in this experiment Lambs were divided into four experimental groups with twelve lambs in each Lambs were fed individually and each was considered as a replicate Lambs in groups 1 2 and 3 were fed with 120 160 and 180 gkg CP diets respectively However lambs in group 4 were fed with a diet of a decreasing level of protein starting from 200 gkg for the first month then a 20 gkg CP reduction month for the following three months At the end of the feeding trial five lambs from each replicate were killed for the visceral organs investigation Results showed that body weight gain in lambs was the same among protein levels in the first 6 weeks of feeding After that lambs on the decreasing level of protein had more P005 total weight gain compared to other treatments A similar trend was observed regarding feed intake Lambs on the decreasing protein diet consumed more feed P005 compared to lambs in other groups Levels of protein had variable effects on the visceral organs mass The cost of gain was the best P005 in lambs fed with the decreasing level of protein Key words: Awassi lambs average daily gain feed conversion ratio visceral organs economic value